Wastewater is increasingly being used in the agricultural sector to cope with the depletion of freshwater resources as well as water stress linked to changing climate conditions. As wastewater irrigation expands, research focusing on the human health risks is critical because exposure to a range of contaminants must be weighed with the benefits to food security, nutrition and livelihoods.

Original Source

From 2010-2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of more than 400 children. Socio-economic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions.

Original Source

Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW.

Original Source

Long-term exposure to fine particles (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been consistently linked to heart and lung disease. Recently, there has been increased interest in examining the effects of air pollution on the nervous system, with evidence showing potentially harmful effects on neurodegeneration.

The researchers objective was to assess the potential impact of long-term PM2.5 exposure on event time, defined as time to first admission for dementia, Alzheimer’s (AD), or Parkinson’s (PD) diseases in an elderly population across the northeastern United States.

More than half the European passenger fleet is diesel-powered. Although the European Union has been progressively tightening vehicle emissions for decades, new diesel cars still produce on-road nitrogen oxide emissions that far exceed the current standard. Efforts to reduce diesel emissions would likely make the cars more costly, but experts say it can—and should—be done.

Original Source

A dramatic disparity between the results of blinded versus open trial designs has raised questions about the effectiveness of water quality interventions and other environmental interventions to prevent diarrhea, a leading killer of young children in low-income countries.

Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are associated with reduced fetal growth in animals, but human studies are inconsistent. Researchers pooled data from four cohorts to examine associations of prenatal OP exposure with birth weight (n=1,169), length (n=1,152), and head circumference (n=1,143).

Original Source

Chrysotile asbestos accounts for more than 90% of the asbestos used worldwide and exposure is associated with asbestosis (asbestos-related fibrosis) and other malignancies, but the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. A common pathogenic mechanism for these malignancies is represented by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), through which epithelial cells undergo a morphological transformation to take on a mesenchymal phenotype.

Telomere length and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content are markers of aging and aging-related diseases. There is inconclusive evidence concerning the mechanistic effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure on biomolecular markers of ageing. The present study examines the association between short- and long-term PM exposure with telomere length and mtDNA content in elderly and investigates to what extend this association is mediated by expression of genes playing a role in the telomere-mitochondrial axis of aging.

With a tropical rainforest climate, rapid urbanization, changing demography and ecology, Singapore experiences endemic dengue, with the last large outbreak in 2013 culminating in 22170 cases. In the absence of a vaccine on the market, vector control is the key approach for prevention. The objective of the study was to forecast the evolution of dengue epidemics in Singapore to provide early warning of outbreaks and to facilitate public health response to moderate an impending outbreak.

Pages