This study looks into two key types of non-road mobile sources: agricultural tractors and construction equipment. Agricultural tractors are widely used in rural areas, and often operate beyond their designated tasks, serving as alternative transportation for passengers and goods.

The European Union’s 2030 climate and energy framework requires the transport, building and agriculture sectors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 30 percent below a 2005 baseline by 2030.

The European Union’s 2030 climate and energy framework requires the transport, building and agriculture sectors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 30 percent below a 2005 baseline by 2030.

This working paper details the differences in fuel specifications for commercial gasoline and diesel fuels in India and the EU, and assesses potential air pollutant emission impacts of these differences.

The proposed BS VI standards are far-reaching in scope and incorporate substantial changes to existing Bharat Stage III and IV emission standards.

Describes case studies of energy cropping in Europe in the context of advanced biofuel and bioproducts sustainability. European biofuel policy has been dominated by discussions about the indirect effects of biofuel consumption, and in particular indirect land use change and impacts on food prices and security.

The primary objective of this literature review is to provide a glimpse at technology changes for diesel and natural gas (NG) engines in the HDV space that are expected over the next 10 to 15 years as India transitions to world-class criteria pollutant emissions standards and improved efficiency becomes a larger focus as a result of fuel efficie

This analysis examines the environmental risks of the commercialization of diesel passenger cars in Brazil, including a potential increase in NOX and PM2.5 emissions, both of which contribute to poor air quality and negatively impact human health, as well as greenhouse gases and other species that contribute to climate change.

India is in the process of developing fuel efficiency standards for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs), and one of the most critical inputs to regulatory development is a technology potential analysis to determine the efficiency levels that the fleet can reasonably achieve over the duration of the regulation.

This report presents the manufacturing costs of emission control technology used to meet recent U.S. and European emission standards for heavy-duty diesel engines and vehicles. The costs assessed include both the in-cylinder technologies to control engine-out emissions and the after treatment technologies that act on the exhaust stream.

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