In recent years, it has become clear that many children around the world are not learning to read proficiently. As a major contributor to human capital deficits, the learning crisis undermines sustainable growth and poverty reduction.

Global GDP growth is decelerating, while trade and industrial production are stagnating. The slowdown has been severe in South Asia, which in recent quarters was no longer the fastest growing region in the world.

Africa's Pulse is a biannual publication containing an analysis of the near-term macroeconomic outlook for the region. Each issue also includes a section focusing upon a topic that represents a particular development challenge for the continent. It is produced by the Office of the Chief Economist for the Africa Region of the World Bank.

Sub-Saharan Africa's turnaround over the past couple of decades has been dramatic. After many years in decline, the continent's economy picked up in the mid-1990s.

Global value chains (GVCs) powered the surge of international trade after 1990 and now account for almost half of all trade. This shift enabled an unprecedented economic convergence: poor countries grew rapidly and began to catch up with richer countries.

In over 70 years since its independence, Indonesia has been transformed by urbanization, and within the next quarter of a century, its transition to an urban society will be almost complete.

The "triple burden" of malnutrition is a public health challenge throughout sub-Saharan Africa, where high levels of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in rural areas occur alongside increased overnutrition and obesity in cities.

The successful conclusion of the Presidential election in January 2019 represents a historic window of opportunity for Madagascar to break cycles of political instability that abruptly interrupted its development in the past and to leapfrog its economic and social revitalization.

For many years, offshore wind was the expensive cousin of onshore wind with generation costs in the range of $150 to $200 per megawatt hour (MWh).

The successful conclusion of the Presidential election in January 2019 represents a historic window of opportunity for Madagascar to break cycles of political instability that abruptly interrupted its development in the past and to leapfrog its economic and social revitalization.

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