This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the South Asia region.

Indonesia is home to an estimated 20 percent of the world’s mangroves, the largest extent of mangrove ecosystems in the world. Mangroves provide valuable ecosystem services that contribute to human wellbeing in Indonesia, including coastal protection, climate regulation, fisheries support services, raw materials provision and cultural services.

Rivers, lakes, and wetlands cover the landscape of our blue planet, but over 97 percent of the world’s freshwater resources lie beneath the ground. In fact, scientists estimate that there is 100 times as much groundwater on Earth as there is freshwater on its surface.

Tanzania has made important achievements in expanding women’s economic opportunities over the past 20 years. The female labor-force participation rate rose from 67% in 2000 to 80% in 2019, well above the average of 63% for Sub-Saharan Africa and among the highest rates on the continent.

Around 2.4 billion women of working age are not afforded equal economic opportunity and 178 countries maintain legal barriers that prevent their full economic participation, according to this new report by the World Bank. In 86 countries, women face some form of job restriction and 95 countries do not guarantee equal pay for equal work.

The Common Principles for Climate Mitigation Finance Tracking consist of a set of definitions and guidelines and a list of eligible activities that allow for consistent accounting and reporting of financial flows for climate change mitigation finance.

Africa’s rural population continues to expand rapidly and labor productivity in agriculture and many rural off farm activities remains low. This paper uses the lens of a dual economy and the associated patterns of agricultural, rural, and structural transformation to review the evolution of Africa’s rural employment and its inclusiveness.

The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (the Lao PDR) economy has been growing fast in recent decades. Between 1990 and 2019 gross domestic product (GDP) increased by an average annual rate of 6.8 percent and the tourism industry has been a big contributor.

The World Bank Group developed the Mozambique problue program (MozAzul) to provide comprehensive technical assistance to the Government of Mozambique on the blue economy agenda.

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