The global oil crisis of 2008 increased the fiscal burden of maintaining generous subsidies that have existed for decades. More recently, these subsidies have been the driving force of ever more precarious fiscal imbalances.

Chronic Emergency: Why NCDs Matter examines the magnitude of the challenge posed by noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in middle- and low-income countries, and makes the case for elevating the challenge as a priority item to address on the agenda of decision-makers. NCDs are on the rise in all middle- and low-income country regions.

The question of whether biofuels help mitigate climate change has attracted much debate in the literature. Using a global computable general equilibrium model that explicitly represents land-use change impacts due to the expansion of biofuels, this study attempts to shed some light on this question.

Providing sustainable financial services for rural areas and agriculture in developing countries has proven to be difficult in spite of recent reforms and billions of dollars spent in subsidizing programs to develop financial institutions. This paper presents a literature review of the lessons learned in the use of subsidies and investments as instruments of agricultural development finance.

Groundwater has played a significant role in the maintenance of India’s economy, environment, and standard of living. India is the largest groundwater user in the world. Through the construction of millions of private wells, there has been a phenomenal growth in the exploitation of groundwater in the last five decades.

Irrigation water reallocations are playing an increasingly important role both in developed and developing countries. With growing urban and environmental water demands, rising cost for the development of new water supplies, and irrigated agriculture usually including the least economically valuable use of water, transfers of irrigation water to alternative uses are increasing.

This report analysis the brick sector in Bangladesh and assesses the feasibility of cleaner alternative technologies. Chapter 1 introduces the rationale and study objectives. An overview of the challenges and opportunities of the brick sector is presented in Chapter 2.

Buses are the most common form of urban transit but, in the developing world, are often seen as inefficient and polluting. It is well known that buses that are properly tuned and adjusted tend to be cleaner, safer and consume less fuel than poorly maintained buses.

This study provides the review of two World Bank experts on the 19 household projects supported by the Bank.

This study aims to strengthen the understanding of the vulnerability of Kolkata from increased precipitation caused by climate change effects with a specific goal to: compile a data base with past weather related information and damage caused by extreme weather related episodes; develop hydrological, hydraulic, and storm drainage models to ident