This toolkit facilitates systematic analysis of direct and indirect effects of development policy reforms on the natural environment and natural resources. It provides a framework and guidance for rapidly assessing environmental, forestry, and natural resource issues at the program concept design stage of the lending activity.

Despite efforts to mandate and finance local governments

The World Bank Group

This paper explores two propositions regarding international river basins: cooperative development of international rivers offers unique economic advantages over unilateral development; and benefit sharing is a necessary condition for facilitating this cooperation.

Geography coupled with high levels of poverty and population density has rendered South Asia especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The impacts of climate change in the form of higher temperatures, more variable precipitation, and more extreme weather events are already felt in South Asia.

Policy makers in India recognize the importance of well-functioning markets to agricultural growth, food security, and broad-based rural development. Markets facilitate the commercialization and diversification of farming, and they are essential for efficiently bringing food and agricultural products to domestic and international consumers.

Ensuring food security in the face of rapidly rising food prices requires a combination of effective safety nets and improving agricultural productivity. Adjusting to higher fuel prices will require again effective safety nets plus a combination of efficient energy use and diversification away from traditional fossil fuels.

This paper, a companion to Transport for Development, proposes a different approach

This volume is based on a review of the evolving groundwater situation during the 1990s in a substantial number of developing nations.

The scale of investment needed to slow greenhouse gas emissions is larger than governments can manage through transfers. Therefore, climate change policies rely heavily on markets and private capital. This is especially true in the case of the Kyoto Protocol with its provisions for trade and investment in joint projects.

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