This paper reviews the status of weather and climate services in Europe and Central Asia (ECA).Worldwide, the accuracy and value of weather and climate services are rising, bringing great economic benefits. However, many national hydrometeorological
A principal aim of this study is to get a better sense of what the World Bank (WB) needs to know in order to engage Indigenous Peoples (IPs) more effectively in biodiversity conservation projects and programs.
Climate change is one of the key challenges of this century. Specifically, balancing climate change mitigation and increased energy needs in developing countries poses a serious dilemma that can only be reconciled with new and improved clean energy technologies.
This report begins with definitions of watersheds and watershed management, a characterization of the problem of watershed degradation, and a short history of watershed management operations and policies. It discusses the findings on watershed management approaches and methodologies. It looks at findings on institutions for watershed management and reviews the economics of watershed management.
Solid waste management (SWM) is a matter of great concern in the urban areas of developing countries. This report covers very lucidly the present scenario of SWM in urban areas, the system deficiencies that exist, and the steps that need to be taken to correct SWM practices in compliance with Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000 ratified by the Government of India.
This paper quantifies how African farmers have adapted their crop and irrigation decisions to their farm's current agro-ecological zone. The results indicate that farmers carefully consider the climate and other conditions of their farm when making these choices. These results are then used to forecast how farmers might change their irrigation and crop choice decisions if climate changes. The model predicts African farmers would adopt irrigation more often under a very hot and dry climate scenario but less often with a mild and wet scenario.
This report develops a Structural Ricardian model to measure climate change impacts that explicitly models the choice of farm type in African agriculture. This two stage model first estimates the type of farm chosen and then the conditional incomes of each farm type after removing selection biases.