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The Montreal Protocol with its subsequent amendments and adjustments has been providing a global regulatory framework for the phase out of ozone depleting substances. Till date, CFCs, CTC, HBFCs, methyl chloroform and halons have been already phased out completely by the developed countries and a number of other ODSs are scheduled to follow.

Increasing tropospheric ozone levels over the past 150 years have led to a significant climate perturbation; the prediction of future trends in tropospheric ozone will require a full understanding of both its precursor emissions and its destruction processes. A large proportion of tropospheric ozone loss occurs in the tropical marine boundary layer and is thought to be driven primarily by high ozone photolysis rates in the presence of high concentrations of water vapour.

Halogens are known to decrease the levels of stratospheric ozone. The latest measurements show that something similar occurs in the lower atmosphere over tropical oceans

The state government on Wednesday decided to continue the controversial cloud seeding operations for another five years. Tenders have been called to select the company which will conduct the operations. A top official said that there was actually no scientific reason for continuing the programme but added that there was

Reactive nitrogen (Nr) includes the inorganic (NH3, NH4, NOx, HNO3, N2O, NO3) and organic forms (urea, amines, proteins, nucleic acids) that readily participate in various reactions of the global N cycle. Over the last half a century, anthropogenic perturbations of the natural N cycle have led to the increasing accumulation of inorganic Nr in the soil, water and air, intentionally through agriculture and unintentionally through fosill-fuel consumption and other activities, adversely affecting human health, biodiversity, environment and climate change.

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Clouds contribute significantly to the formation of many of the natural hazards. Hence cloud mapping and its classification becomes a major component of the various physical models which are used for forecasting natural hazards.

Increasing quantities of atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen entering the open ocean could account for up to about a third of the ocean's external (nonrecycled) nitrogen supply and up to ~3% of the annual new marine biological production, ~0.3 petagram of carbon per year. This input could account for the production of up to ~1.6 teragrams of nitrous oxide (N2O) per year.

Dust aerosols can suppress rainfall by increasing the number of cloud condensation nuclei in warm clouds and affecting the surface radiation budget and boundary layer instability. The extent to which atmospheric dust may affect precipitation yields and the hydrologic cycle in semiarid regions remains poorly understood. We investigate the relationship between dust aerosols and rainfall in the West African Sahel where the dust-rainfall feedback has been speculated to contribute to sustained droughts.

At a time when the Chief Minister and other ministers are praising the rain gods for regular showers and releasing thanksgiving advertisements, the rain shadow areas development department (RSAD) claims that its efforts have paid rich dividends. Impressed by the "work" done by the private aviation company M/s Agni Aviation, the government has decided to continue the cloud seeding operation in the drought-prone areas of the state for another five years, from 2008-09. But no scientific data is available so far that could clearly prove the impact of cloud seeding.

Nuclear war between India and Pakistan would cause more than slaughter and destruction -- it would knock a big hole in the ozone layer, affecting crops, animals and people worldwide, US researchers said on Monday. Fires from burning cities would send 5 million metric tonnes of soot or more into the lowest part of Earth's atmosphere known as the troposphere, and heat from the sun would carry these blackened particles into the stratosphere, the team at the University of Colorado reported.

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