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This paper presents maps of anthropogenic Hg emissions worldwide within a 1°×1° latitude/longitude grid system in 1995. As such, the paper is designed for modelers simulating the Hg transport within air masses and Hg deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Maps of total Hg emissions and its three main chemical species: elemental gaseous Hg, divalent gaseous Hg, and particle-associated Hg are presented. The main emissions occur in southeast Asia (particularly in China), South Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and the Eastern United States.

The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was sponsored by research agencies within Europe, India and USA, and was mainly concerned with the haze over south Asia and the adjacent Indian Ocean. It excluded other equally or even more polluted areas in Asia. The Asian Brown Cloud is a follow on international research project that includes all of Asia.

Human activities are releasing tiny particles (aerosols) into the atmosphere. These human-made aerosols enhance scattering and absorption of solar radiation. They also produce brighter clouds that are less efficient at releasing precipitation. These in turn lead to large reductions in the amount of solar irradiance reaching Earth's surface, a corresponding increase in solar heating of the atmosphere, changes in the atmospheric temperature structure, suppression of rainfall, and less efficient removal of pollutants.

Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations (satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with oneand four-dimensional models to derive the regional
aerosol forcing resulting from the direct, the semidirect and the two indirect effects.

The most visible impact of air pollution is the haze, a brownish layer of pollutants and particles from biomass burning and industrial emissions, that pervades most regions in Asia. A recent international study, the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), has revealed that this haze is transported far beyond the source region, particularly during the dry season.

Latitudinal distribution of radiative flux at different layers has been measured for the first time over the Indian Ocean from 15°N to 20°S during intensive field
phase of INDOEX 1999. Simultaneously measurements have been made over three Indian ground stations, viz. Delhi, Pune and Trivandrum. The basic feature of
radiative flux over the Indian Ocean, Delhi, Pune and Trivandrum is similar, i.e. the radiative flux increases with altitude and reaches a maximum value at 15 km

These rules may be called The Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000. They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Official Gazette.

Measurements and models show that enhanced aerosol concentrations can augment cloud albedo not only by increasing total droplet cross-sectional area, but also by reducing precipitation and thereby increasing cloud water content and cloud coverage. Aerosol pollution is expected to exert a net cooling influence on the global climate through these conventional mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate an opposite mechanism through which aerosols can reduce

In the past decade there has been extensive research into tropical intraseasonal variability, one of the major components of the low frequency variability of the general atmospheric circulation. This paper briefly reviews the state-of-the-art in this research area: the nature of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, its relation to monsoonal and extratropical circulations, and the current theoretical understandings.

Original Source

Statistics relating to the date of onset of the southwest monsoon over Kerala for the 100-year period 1891-1990 reveal that the mean and median dates of onset for south Kerala are 31 May and 1 June, with a standard deviation of 8.5 days. Declaring the date of monsoon onset is not a straightforward matter. However, rainfall pattern, uppper air circulation features and INSAT cloud pictures are useful guides, and these indicate that the onset date in 1990 esd 17-18 May. During 1891-1990 there have been onlyy 12 years in which the date of onset over Kerala has been on or before 18 May.