Heat waves are the most significant cause of mortality in the US compared to other natural hazards. Prior studies have found increased heat exposure for individuals of lower socioeconomic status in several US cities, but few comparative analyses of the social distribution of urban heat have been conducted. To address this gap, our paper examines and compares the environmental justice consequences of urban heat risk in the three largest US cities: New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago.

The observation of high aerosol hygroscopic growth in Madrid is mainly limited to specific atmospheric conditions, such as local stagnation episodes, which take place in winter time. One of these episodes was identified in December 2014 and the hygroscopic growth factor (GF) measurements obtained in such episode were analysed in order to know the influence of the meteorological conditions on aerosol hygroscopic properties.

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The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), one of the six Working Groups of the Arctic Council, has released its assessment report on methane as a climate forcer.

GCOS has released its report Status of the Global Observing System for Climate (GCOS-195) which has been submitted to the UNFCCC in December in Paris. The results of the global observing system have proved invaluable and have underpinned the IPCC fifth assessment report.

This paper presents a method for attributing regional trends in the frequency of extremely hot days (EHDs) to changes in the frequency of the atmospheric patterns that characterize such extraordinary events. The study is applied to mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands for the extended summers of the period 1958–2008, where significant and positive trends in maximum temperature (Tx ) have been reported during the second half of the past century.

A study was taken up to identify annual changes in temperature. For this study, daily (maximum and minimum) temperature data for 45 years (1969–2013) prepared by the India Meteorological Department, Pune were used. The identification of change was based on statistical trend analysis. From the analysis, it can be concluded that the dominant tendency over the India land mass is of warming, and colder months of the year show more warming.

Pollen analysis of 1.75 m deep sediment core from Tula-Jalda (Amarkantak) in Anuppur district, Madhya Pradesh shows that around 4500–3600 cal years BP, this region supported open mixed tropical deciduous forests comprising chiefly Madhuca indica followed by Terminalia, Mitragyna parvifolia, Haldina cordifolia, Emblica officinalis and Acacia, under a warm and relatively less humid climate. The retrieval of Cerealia and other cultural plants, viz. Artemisia, Cheno/Am and Caryophyllaceae signifies that the region was under cereal-based agricultural practice.

The 2014 annual review of disaster figures based on the EM-DAT database outlines information about the EM-DAT International Disaster Database, its definitions, criteria and content; asks: What did 2014 bring? How different was 2014?; and provides regional analysis on Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania.

Invasive species are among the primary threats to biodiversity and risk assessment is one problem-solving approach that can prioritize and guide efforts to reduce the negative consequences of invasion. We used a nichemodeling framework to conduct a geographic risk assessment of exotic reptiles in the state of Florida, USA, a region with the highest density of invasive herpetofaunal species in the world. We then compared model predictions with observed records of exotic species across the state.

Pakistan is among the lowest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world, but ranks among the highest in terms of vulnerability to climate change. Its high dependency on the Indus River system makes it particularly vulnerable to the increasing rate of glacial melt and erratic monsoon patterns.