The dramatic warming of the Arctic over the last three decades has reduced both the thickness and extent of sea ice, opening opportunities for business in diverse sectors and increasing human exposure to meteorological hazards in the Arctic. It has been suggested that these changes in environmental conditions have led to an increase in extreme cyclones in the region, therefore increasing this hazard.
The goal of this paper is to bring a risk‐based mindset to the challenge of climate change and its effects on atmospheric perils of relevance to catastrophe modeling. Section 1 summarizes some key elements of climate and climate change and its relevance for weather extremes.
The Atlas of the Human Planet 2017: Global Exposure to Natural Hazards summarizes the global multi-temporal analysis of exposure to six major natural hazards: earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, floods, tropical cyclone winds, and sea level surge.
The GAR Risk Atlas contributes to unveiling the hidden risk in national economies and their urban centres. Building on a multi-year effort by a consortium of leading scientific institutions coordinated by UNISDR, it provides a global vision of where and how disaster risk can undermine development.
Tropical cyclones and sea level rise cause major problems including beach erosion and damage to infrastructure in coastal areas. Inexpensive but effective plans for coastal protection will be needed by small island nations and developing countries. Natural breakwater formed by reefs is more cost-effective in coastal protection than the construction of artificial defenses. It provides a habitat for marine organisms and societal benefits including marine products, tourism, and education.