Many countries have made a commitment to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to net zero by or around 2050. If some sectors have residual emissions, these must be compensated for by removing CO2 from the air and storing it.

This UNEP 2021 ECT Guide is designed to provide an overview for policymakers, judges, academics, and stakeholders who are interested in improving the adjudication of environmental disputes.

How do we take stock of the state and direction of the world’s environment, and what can we learn from the experience? Among the myriad detailed narratives about the condition of the planet, the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) reports—issued by the United Nations Environment Programme—stand out as the most ambitious.

Methane has been responsible for roughly 30 percent of global warming since preindustrial times, and it has more than 80 times the global warming impact of carbon dioxide over a 20-year period.

This paper presents a detailed overview of the nature of loss and damage risks affecting low-income countries, marginalised groups and people living in poverty in the global South, and how they might be addressed.

These guidelines are intended to assist countries in understanding the agronomic parameters involved in the computation of the agricultural component of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicator 6.4.1 on the change in water use efficiency over time.

The report highlights how climate risks are beginning to spill over. Analysis shows a world split into three groups of countries based on their resilience to threats triggered by climate change, such as civil unrest, political instability, food insecurity, mass migration, and worsening human rights.

In the first half of 2022, many electricity markets continued to experience skyrocketing prices, particularly in Europe, reflecting deep uncertainties over both fossil fuel supplies and the economic outlook.

This report shines a light on the cooling access challenges faced today and how they may change by 2030. It shows that the risks to the most vulnerable from extreme heat are growing due to a lack of access to sustainable cooling.

Sixty per cent of low-income countries are already in or at high risk of debt distress, while the global economic and debt sustainability outlook is quickly deteriorating due to higher interest rates, higher food prices and depreciating currencies.

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