This study forms part of a broader project, supported by the German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA), with the primary objective to analyse the current situation and development of the international carbon markets.

Free distribution of a technology can be an effective development policy instrument if its adoption is socially inefficient and hampered by affordability constraints. Improved cookstoves may be such a case: they generate high environmental and public health returns, but adoption is generally low.

The approach of the study contains the brief literature review on the industrial consumption and production of charcoal in India. Based on this and the pre-set objectives, the study problems were formulated.

The paper discusses challenges in analyzing the costs of household cooking methods (fuels and associated stove technologies) in lower-income countries, and sources of divergence between observed and true social costs.

A subset of Sustainable Development Goals pertains to improving people's living standards at home. These include the provision of access to electricity, clean cooking energy, improved water and sanitation. We examine historical progress in energy access in relation to other living standards. We assess regional patterns in the pace of progress and relative priority accorded to these different services. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa would have to undergo unprecedented rates of improvement in energy access in order to achieve the goal of universal electrification by 2030.

Approximately 95% of households in Mozambique burn solid fuels for cooking, contributing to elevated indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and subsequent health and climate impacts. Little is known about the potential health and climate benefits of various approaches for expanding the use of cleaner stoves and fuels in Mozambique.

This report reviews emerging and persistent issues for Asia and the Pacific, including the implementation of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in particular the SDG 7, focusing particularly on transboundary power trade for energy connectivity and energy access.

There are different factors at play leading to women and girls being disproportionately affected by energy poverty. Any intervention regarding universal energy access needs to take those factors into account.

The Aadhaar-linked Direct Benefit Transfer scheme for reducing leakages in Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) subsidies has been widely advertised as a phenomenal success and has been used to promote Aadhaar and DBT in other spheres by prominent government officials. However, an analyses of various studies and data shows that the government’s tall claims of savings cannot be confirmed and leaves much to be questioned.

This working paper describes case studies in Kenya and Zambia that developed ‘user journeys’ to understand how households come to adopt an advanced cookstove, and the factors that support or hinder that process. A shift to advanced cookstoves can bring significant health and environmental benefits, but only with proper and consistent use.

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