A cyclogenesis index (CSGP) is introduced and its variations have been evaluated for the period 1979 to 2008. It is found that CSGP is able to distinguish different categories of storms over North Indian Ocean. The relative roles of contributing parameters are analyzed to study the influence of CGSP with respect different background states. It is found that vorticity, convergence, relative humidity and convective instability should be high enough to offset the negative impact of shear parameter.

The Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) has warmed and grown substantially during the past century. The IPWP is Earth’s largest region of warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs), has the highest rainfall, and is fundamental to global atmospheric circulation and hydrological cycle. The region has also experienced the world’s highest rates of sea-level rise in recent decades, indicating large increases in ocean heat content and leading to substantial impacts on small island states in the region.

Lightning is one of the major threats to multimegawatt wind turbines and a concern for modern aircraft due to the use of lightweight composite materials. Both wind turbines and aircraft can initiate lightning, and very favorable conditions for lightning initiation occur in winter thunderstorms. Moreover, winter thunderstorms are characterized by a relatively high production of very energetic lightning. This paper reviews the different types of lightning interactions and summarizes the well-known winter thunderstorm areas.

EI Nino refers to warming of the eastern tropical Pacific, whichdisrupts the local climate and has a wider effect on general weatherpatterns. The opposite of this term is La-Nina.

The Indian summer monsoon rainfall had a threedecade long alternate dry and wet epochs during about 150 years from 1840 to 1989. The dry epochs resulted in frequent drought monsoons affecting agriculture, power generation and the overall economy of the country. A high percentage of severe cyclones in the Bay of Bengal moved northwards during the dry epochs causing disasters in Bangladesh, Myanmar and the Indian States of Odisha and West Bengal.

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The longest global coral bleaching event in history is now devastating reefs in the crystal clear waters of the Maldives, with images released exclusively to the Guardian powerfully illustrating th

Over India, heat waves occur during the summer months of April to June. A gridded daily temperature data set for the period, 1961–2013 has been analyzed to examine the variability and trends in heat waves over India. For identifying heat waves, the Excess Heat Factor (EHF) and 90th percentile of maximum temperatures were used. Over central and northwestern parts of the country, frequency, total duration and maximum duration of heat waves are increasing.

Fish biomass is a primary driver of coral reef ecosystem services and has high sensitivity to human disturbances, particularly fishing. Estimates of fish biomass, their spatial distribution, and recovery potential are important for evaluating reef status and crucial for setting management targets. Here we modeled fish biomass estimates across all reefs of the western Indian Ocean using key variables that predicted the empirical data collected from 337 sites. These variables were used to create biomass and recovery time maps to prioritize spatially explicit conservation actions.

The impact of the Indian and Atlantic oceans variability on El Niño–Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is investigated through sensitivity experiments with the SINTEX-F2 coupled model. For each experiment, we suppressed the sea surface temperature (SST) variability in either the Indian or Atlantic oceans by applying a strong nudging of the SST toward a SST climatology computed either from a control experiment or observations. In the sensitivity experiments where the nudging is done toward a control SST climatology, the Pacific mean state and seasonal cycle are not changed.

The global carbon cycle is highly sensitive to climate-driven fluctuations of precipitation, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. This was clearly manifested by a 20% increase of the global terrestrial C sink in 2011 during the strongest sustained La Niña since 1917. However, inconsistencies exist between El Niño/La Niña (ENSO) cycles and precipitation in the historical record; for example, significant ENSO–precipitation correlations were present in only 31% of the last 100 years, and often absent in wet years.

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