Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation1, 2. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP).

This study systematically evaluates the environmental integrity of Joint Implementation (JI) in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Analysis indicates that about three-quarters of JI offsets are unlikely to represent additional emissions reductions.

This Technical Note provides a summary of the key elements and design features of 11 different carbon offset programs. It discusses the essential differences and similarities between programs, and discusses how these programs address key issues, such as: efficiency, environmental integrity, applicability, and transaction costs.

This paper provides key messages for climate change negotiators and policy makers on the potential contribution of the land transport sector to global climate change mitigation strategies.

This new World Bank report on the state and trends of carbon pricing shows that while international negotiations may be slow, countries and cities are moving on climate pricing.

The Mapping Carbon Pricing Initiatives report maps existing and emerging carbon pricing initiatives around the world. It does not provide a quantitative, transaction-based analysis of the international carbon market since current market conditions invalidate any attempt to undertake such an analysis.

The establishment of the Clean Development Mechanism has been one of the successes of the Kyoto Protocol. It has helped to build experience, capacity and comfort with the use of market mechanisms to reduce emissions. This will be useful when implementing future market mechanisms.

The outcome of the December 2011 United Nations climate negotiations in Durban, South Africa, provides an important new opportunity to move toward an international climate policy architecture that is capable of delivering broad international participation and significant global CO2 emissions reductions at reasonable cost.

The Little Data Book on Climate Change includes a diverse set of indicators selected from the global economic and scientific communities.

The UNEP, under its Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM) project, has published a paper on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which focuses on the equitable distribution of CDM projects.