Data presented at a seminar on climate change in Pakistan highlighted trends where this South Asian country, which stretches from high, snow-capped mountains to a deltaic coast, could be in for a s

Focusing trans-boundary water regime of Ganges- Brahmaputra- Meghna (GBM) basin, this situation analysis paper discusses the core issues related to environmental security through analyzing various environmental impacts and its significance at the national and regional level.

Strong evidence on climate change underscores the need for actions to reduce the impacts of sea-level rise. Global mean sea level may rise 0.18–0.48 m by mid-century and 0.5–1.4 m by the end of the century. Besides marine inundation, it is largely unrecognized that low-lying coastal areas may also be vulnerable to groundwater inundation, which is localized coastal-plain flooding due to a rise of the groundwater table with sea level.

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are becoming an increasing problem to human health and environment, including harmful effects on natural and cultured resources, tourism and ecosystems all over the world. Marine raphidophycean algae, Chattonella spp., have been implicated in major fish deaths in various parts of the world and are regarded as the most noxious HAB species in Japan and China. 

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With urbanization of coastal cities, marine pollution is becoming a severe problem. The rates of biodegradation, decomposition, and ratification of pollutants get slowed down due to salinity. The higher temperatures prevalent in tropical regions significantly affect reaction rates. Multiple factors influence the rate of biodegradation, making the process complex. Hence, prediction and evaluation of the assimilative capacity of the marine environment due to wastewater discharges is becoming a difficult task.

The debate surrounding the safety of shale gas development in the Appalachian Basin has generated increased awareness of drinking water quality in rural communities. Concerns include the potential for migration of stray gas, metal-rich formation brines, and hydraulic fracturing and/or flowback fluids to drinking water aquifers. A critical question common to these environmental risks is the hydraulic connectivity between the shale gas formations and the overlying shallow drinking water aquifers.

The most used temperature and salinity climatology for the world ocean, including the Indian Ocean, is the World Ocean Atlas (WOA) (Antonov et al 2006, 2010; Locarnini et al 2006, 2010) because of the vast amount of data used in its preparation. The WOA climatology does not, however, include all the available hydrographic data from the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), leading to the potential for improvement if the data from this region are included to prepare a new climatology.

Fundamental thermodynamics and climate models suggest that dry regions will become drier and wet regions will become wetter in response to warming. Efforts to detect this long-term response in sparse surface observations of rainfall and evaporation remain ambiguous. We show that ocean salinity patterns express an identifiable fingerprint of an intensifying water cycle. Our 50-year observed global surface salinity changes, combined with changes from global climate models, present robust evidence of an intensified global water cycle at a rate of 8 ± 5% per degree of surface warming.

Bangladesh - An overview of key environmental issues.

A massive campaign will be taken up during the next five years, with the assistance of the local public sector units as well as the private sector, to grow 40 lakh trees in and around Visakhapatnam

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