Forests in California have changed dramatically during the 20th century. Shifts in forest structure including densification, declines in large trees and tree basal area have altered the function, productivity, and resilience of modern day forests. Attributing these changes to specific drivers is increasingly important for effective management of healthy and productive forests.

The bottom-up traffic emission model EMISENS is used to calculate hourly black carbon (BC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission rates on an average workday in Maribor (Slovenia), using emission factors that were previously determined with the on-road chasing measurements in Slovenia. From modeled NOx emission rates and in-situ NOx measurements we empirically determined the hourly dispersion of traffic emissions and applied it to model BC concentrations using BC emission rates.

Remaining habitat for P. tapanuliensis is threatened by forest fragmentation, habitat degradation, and conversion that are slated to continue. These are critical factors for the survival of large primates, and particularly Sumatran orangutans, including P. tapanuliensis. Presently, individuals of this species are divided among three forest fragments in the Batang Toru region of Sumatra.

Considered as a hotspot for biodiversity in the Mediterranean Basin, Lebanon is currently witnessing anarchic urbanization and unprecedented destruction of its natural habitats. Unregulated urbanization is also compounded by the surge in Lebanon’s population due to the unabated influx of Syrian refugees since 2012. This work aims to define Important Plant Areas (IPAs) with exceptional botanical richness. These IPAs should constitute the priority zones for conservation, contributing to the fulfillment of national targets in the framework of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

Coppice and coppice with standards are important habitats for species of light forests, because regular cutting of re-growth applied in this type of forest-use produces forest structures that fulfil habitat requirements of these species. Coppicing had been a traditional forest-use system in Central Europe for centuries, but it has dramatically declined in the last 100 years. As a conservation strategy, a contract-based conservation program for forests (CBCP Forest) was introduced in 2005 in Bavaria, Germany, that supports among other activities coppiced forests.

Increasing farm labor scarcity and depletion of natural resources such as water are posing a major threat to the sustainability of traditional puddled transplanted rice (PTR) farming in Eastern India. Dry-seeded rice (DSR) or non-puddled transplanted rice (NPTR) could be used as an alternative to PTR. To understand the trade-off with different water management and rice genotypes under non-puddled conditions, a field experiment was conducted during 2014–2015 on a sandy clay loam soil of Bhubaneswar, Odisha.

Continuously flooded rice systems are a major contributor to global rice production and food security. Allowing the soil to dry periodically during the growing season (such as with alternate wetting and drying irrigation - AWD) has been shown to decrease methane emissions, water usage, and heavy metal accumulation in rice grain. However, the effects of AWD on rice yields are variable and not well understood.

Countries rely on out-of-pocket (OOP) spending to different degrees and employ varying techniques. The article examines trends in OOP spending in ten high-income countries since 2000, and analyzes their relationship to self-assessed barriers to accessing health care services. The countries are Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Original Source

Freshwater availability is changing worldwide. Here we quantify 34 trends in terrestrial water storage observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites during 2002–2016 and categorize their drivers as natural interannual variability, unsustainable groundwater consumption, climate change or combinations thereof. Several of these trends had been lacking thorough investigation and attribution, including massive changes in northwestern China and the Okavango Delta. Others are consistent with climate model predictions.

The Montreal Protocol was designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by enabling reductions in the abundance of ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the atmosphere. The reduction in the atmospheric concentration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) has made the second-largest contribution to the decline in the total atmospheric concentration of ozone-depleting chlorine since the 1990s.