The forests you see today are not what you will see in the future. That's the overarching finding from a new study on the resilience of Rocky Mountain forests, led by Colorado State University.

Extreme weather events such as Hurricane Harvey are increasingly being linked to climate change in scientific studies Mark Ralston/AFP/Getty Images

Hamtah and Chhota Shigri are two nearby, well monitored glaciers of western Himalaya, lying in the same climatic zone and driven by the same climatic conditions. In this study, topographical characteristics of both the glacier have been explored to understand the role of topography in controlling the glacier response.

The cryosphere constitutes an important subset of the hydrosphere. The Himalayan cryosphere is a significant contributor to the hydrological budget of a large river system such as the Ganges. Basic data on the cryosphere in the Himalaya is inadequate and also has large uncertainties. The data on glacial melt component in the Himalayan rivers of India also shows high variability.

Mountains provide vital resources to a significant proportion of the global population, particularly as the ‘water towers’ of the world, and as a result of their high biological diversity at genetic, species and ecosystem levels.