The second African Transformation Report provides a data-rich assessment of the state of agriculture in Africa, its impact on macro-economic outcomes and its recent performance. It focuses on land tenure systems and the kinds of reforms that would enable customary tenure systems to better support commercial agriculture.

Flights all around the world could be encountering lots more turbulence in the future, according to the first ever global projections of in-flight bumpiness.

Australian temperature records tumbled again in September this year, with the country experiencing the hottest day since records began, and New South Wales breaking that record twice within a few d

Socioeconomic challenges continue to mount for half a billion residents of central India because of a decline in the total rainfall and a concurrent rise in the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events. Alongside a weakening monsoon circulation, the locally available moisture and the frequency of moisture-laden depressions from the Bay of Bengal have also declined. Here we show that despite these negative trends, there is a threefold increase in widespread extreme rain events over central India during 1950–2015.

The lessngth of the fire cycle is a critical factor affecting the vegetation cover in boreal and temperate regions. However, its responses to climate change remain poorly understood. We re-analysed data from earlier studies of forest age structures at the landscape level, in order to map the evolution of regional fire cycles across Eastern North American boreal and temperate forests, following the termination of the Little Ice Age (LIA). We demonstrated a well-defined spatial pattern of post-LIA changes in the length of fire cycles towards lower fire activity during the 1800s and 1900s.