The governance of the ocean is not a novel concept; however, like climate change and energy, its transboundary nature and the involvement of several stakeholders complicate it. This inherent diversity of interests leads to regime complexities and challenges in developing comprehensive regulatory systems.

Insufficient progress towards climate goals is slowing down the global fight against poverty, hunger and deadly diseases, according to this report  by the UN World

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Assessment Report 6 (AR6), stated that the recent climate change is “widespread, rapid, intensifying and unprecedented in thousands of years.” It is further noted: “Climate change is already affecting every region on Earth in multiple ways.

This report presents ten salient insights from climate change research, stemming mainly from literature published in 2021 and 2022. Taken together they reveal the complexities of the interactions between climate change and other risks, such as conflicts, pandemics, food crises and underlying development challenges.

Reviewed and supported by over 60 leading cryosphere scientists, the Report details how a combination of melting polar ice sheets, vanishing glaciers, and thawing permafrost will have rapid, irreversible, and disastrous effects on the Earth’s population.