Assessing mutagenicity of textile dyes from Pali (Rajasthan) using Ames Bioassay

In Rajasthan state particularly, textile mills represent an important economic sector. Pali district in Rajasthan has got largest number of textile industries in the State i.e.989 units, mostly engaged in cotton and synthetic textile printing and dyeing. These industries liberate a variety of chemicals, dyes, acids and alkalis besides other toxic compounds like heavy metals, which are known for their hazardous properties. However, excessive and indiscriminate use of dyestuffs has become increasingly a subject of environmental concern. These dyes can enter the environment through the industrial effluents of dye manufacturing plants and from textile dyeing and printing operations, as wastewater effluents. Assessment of genotoxicity of dyes is therefore of utmost importance. Short-term genetic bioassays have proved to be an important tool in such studies because of their simplicity, sensitivity to genetic damage, speed, low cost of experimentation and small amount of sample required. A total of 7 dyes were tested for their mutagenicity, by Ames assay, using strain TA 100 of Salmonella typhimurium.