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This paper reviews recent developments in the European passenger car market and assesses the implications for the proposed post-2021 CO2 emissions targets.

This analysis estimates the number of charging points and hydrogen refueling stations needed to enable the transition to 100 percent sales of zero-emission Class 7 and Class 8 tractor-trailers by 2040 in the United States.

This specific study focuses on EV charging infrastructure, related policy and regulatory measures, grid integration of EVs, and the way forward for smooth EV adaption in the Indian EV ecosystem.

The electric vehicle market in the United States has grown from a few thousand vehicles in 2010 to more than 315,000 vehicles sold annually from 2018 to 2020. In 2020, the electric share of new vehicle sales was approximately 2.4%, an increase from about 2% in 2019.

This study focuses on EV charging infrastructure, related policy and regulatory measures, grid integration of EVs, and the way forward for smooth EV adaption in the Indian EV ecosystem.

Market analyses by vehicle segment, weight category, manufacturer, and engine size are needed to optimize vehicle emission standards and testing requirements. In India, these are largely adopted from Euro standards to fit the Indian landscape, and that was the case with the Bharat Stage (BS) VI regulations that took effect April 1, 2020.

The central government and several state governments in India have implemented consumer financial incentives that reduce the total cost of ownership gap between electric and conventional gasoline and diesel cars used as ride-hailing vehicles.

An upcoming review of the heavy-duty CO2 emissions standards in the European Union will consider several adjustments to the regulation, including the possibility of extending the CO2 emissions reduction targets to other vehicle segments, as well as setting specific targets for trailers.

Assam is the latest Indian state to announce an electric vehicle (EV) policy. The Electric Vehicle Policy of Assam, 2021 aims for 25% EV penetration in all vehicle registrations by 2026. Assam has followed Maharashtra, Delhi, and Gujarat, which have earlier launched state-specific EV policies.

Diesel, natural gas, and electric heavy-duty vehicles can be designed and manufactured with the capability of complying with the ultra-low NOx limits envisioned in the next set of California and federal HDV regulations. But that is not to say that the outcomes for each are equivalent.

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