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This report examines how Indonesia can spur a shift to electric motorcycles by developing its motorcycle charging infrastructure. Motorcycles are a major component of road transport in Indonesia with more than 120 million estimated to be in use.

In developing countries with inadequate public transport and road infrastructure, motorcycles present a fast, cheap, and efficient transport alternative. Motorcycles are widely used in many African countries for personal and public transport, as well as for service delivery.

NITI Aayog has proposed a regulatory framework for electric mobility even as it forecasts electric two-wheelers sales in India to jump to 22.01 million by 2031 as against 0.23 million in 2021 if demand incentives continue beyond 2024 and battery cost reduces while the power goes up due to significant improvement in technology.

Electric two-wheelers are poised to become the primary clean mobility alternative, and efforts to facilitate their adoption must be prioritised. There is an imminent need to address the critical barriers in their value chains.

This study examines what India’s transport energy use and associated carbon emissions will look like in a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario over the next 30 years. It indicates that India’s transport sector will witness deep structural changes, driven by market forces, in the next couple of decades.

Created with support from NITI Aayog, this work explores the emerging landscape of battery swapping for electric two-wheelers (E2Ws) in India. There are clear benefits to battery swapping, a plug-and-play solution for charging the battery of an electric vehicle, and it takes just a few minutes to charge an E2W.

This paper evaluates if electric two-wheelers in India with the battery-swapping option have achieved cost parity relative to electric two-wheelers with the point charging option and with conventional gasoline two-wheelers.

If the global transportation sector is to align with efforts supporting the best chance of achieving the Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting global warming to below 2 °C, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from road transport in 2050 need to be dramatically lower than today’s levels.

Assam is the latest Indian state to announce an electric vehicle (EV) policy. The Electric Vehicle Policy of Assam, 2021 aims for 25% EV penetration in all vehicle registrations by 2026. Assam has followed Maharashtra, Delhi, and Gujarat, which have earlier launched state-specific EV policies.

The shift to fuel injection in two-wheelers that has come with India’s implementation of Bharat Stage VI emission standards brings with it the opportunity to adopt several modern internal combustion engine (ICE) technologies from the passenger car, limited only by cost-bracket considerations and vehicle size.

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