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India’s highly centralized federal structure sits uneasily with the nature of the climate problem. While financial and bureaucratic capacities are concentrated in the centre, the locus of climate decisions lies largely in the states because they steer energy choices and respond to climate impacts.

Carbon prices are needed to incorporate climate change costs into economic decision making.

There is considerable anxiety about the international impact of unilateral action on climate change. Environmentalists are concerned that it leads to ‘carbon leakage’, that is, the migration of high-emissions activities from relatively tight regulatory environments to more lenient jurisdictions.

Climate change policies including net-zero commitments, green new deals, and circular economy plans often combine carbon-reduction objectives with a set of policy and market interventions needed to reach those goals.

Nature-based Solutions (NbS) can help cities address urgent and fundamental environmental challenges by bringing ecosystems services back into cities and rebalancing cities’ relationships with their surrounding areas.

The paper examines climate mitigation strategies to reach net-zero emissions by mid-century, focusing on smoothing macroeconomic costs in the short- to medium-term—the horizon relevant for policymakers.

Climate change and the biodiversity crisis are driving a demand for actions that build long-term resilience of societies, ecosystems, and economies. EbA uses natural systems to build the resilience of ecosystems, as well as the communities that depend on them.

On-road diesel vehicles are the leading contributor to air pollution and associated disease burdens. Besides the impact on air quality and public health, black carbon from diesel engine exhaust produces significant near-term climate warming.

The health and well-being of future generations are bound to the fate of the planet. A 4°C warmer world will have catastrophic and wide-ranging effects on social, ecological and economic systems, and impacts will be disproportionately felt in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the ‘Global South’.

Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have long pursued unconventional economic development strategies, often with great success. Equally, because of their pronounced susceptibility to exogenous shocks, their progress remains fragile and can be set back suddenly and dramatically, as the Covid-19 crisis and secondary impacts have shown.