This annual statement confirms that 2016 was the warmest year on record, approximately 1.1 °C above the pre-industrial period, and 0.06 °C above the previous highest value set in 2015. Noteworthy extreme events in 2016 included severe droughts that brought food insecurity to millions in southern and eastern Africa and Central America.

Meteorological studies have indicated that high alpine environments are strongly affected by climate warming, and periglacial debris flows are frequent in deglaciated regions. The combination of rainfall and air temperature controls the initiation of periglacial debris flows, and the addition of meltwater due to higher air temperatures enhances the complexity of the triggering mechanism compared to that of storm-induced debris flows.

This report provides regional sea-level rise scenarios and tools for coastal preparedness planning and risk management in the United States. It refines six global sea level rise scenarios (Low, Intermediate Low, Intermediate, Intermediate High, High, and Extreme) decade by decade.

The government of Bolivia, a landlocked country in the heart of South America, has been forced to declare a state of emergency as it faces its worst drought for at least 25 years.

A scientist has engineered a way to possibly solve the problems of glacial melting in the Himalayas through artificial glacier towers called an ice stupa.

The World Meteorological Organization has published a detailed analysis of the global climate 2011-2015 – the hottest five-year period on record - and the increasingly visible human footprint on extreme weather and climate events with dangerous and costly impacts.

The World Meteorological Organization has published a detailed analysis of the global climate 2011-2015 – the hottest five-year period on record - and the increasingly visible human footprint on extreme weather and climate events with dangerous and costly impacts.

The climate, cryosphere, and hydrology of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region have changed in the past and will change in the future. This literature review investigates the state of knowledge on climate change and its projected impact on the cryosphere and hydrology of the HKH, with a specific focus on the implications for

GLOF is low-frequency event, but it often causes enormous loss and damage of life, property and human environment in downstream regions. The economic losses caused by GLOF are much higher than the project costs to early consolidate moraine dam and release flood waters. Glacial lake outbursts can be very difficult and expensive to control, but regional exposure and vulnerability of exposed elements downstream can be reduced by improving adaptation capacity and risk management level.

The high Arctic archipelagos around the globe are among the most strongly glacierized landscapes on Earth apart from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Over the past decades, the mass losses from land ice in the high Arctic regions have contributed substantially to global sea level rise. Among these regions, the archipelago of Svalbard showed the smallest mass losses. However, this could change in the coming decades, as Svalbard is expected to be exposed to strong climate warming over the 21st century.

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