State of the Climate draws on the latest climate research, encompassing observations, analyses and projections to describe year-to-year variability and longer-term changes in Australia’s climate. Co-developed with the Bureau of Meteorology, this sixth, biennial report draws on the latest climate monitoring, science and projection information.

Southwestern China (SWC) has suffered from increasing frequency of heat wave (HW) in recent summers. While the local drought-HW connection is one obvious mechanism for this change, remote controls remain to be explored. Based on ERA-5 reanalysis, it is found that the SWC summer HWs are significantly correlated with sea-ice losses in the Barents Sea, Kara Sea and the Arctic pole.

Indigenous Peoples globally are among those who are most acutely experiencing the mental health impacts of climate change; however, little is known about the ways in which Indigenous Peoples globally experience climate-sensitive mental health impacts and outcomes, and how these experiences may vary depending on local socio-cultural contexts, geographical location, and regional variations in climate change.

Human-emitted greenhouse gases (GHGs) have resulted in a long-term and unequivocal warming of the planet. More than 90% of the excess heat is stored within the world’s oceans, where it accumulates and causes increases in ocean temperature.

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Himalayan pencil cedar (Juniperus polycarpos) is an evergreen tree distributed from Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Kagan valley, Kashmir, Lahaul-Spiti to upper reaches of western Tibet. In the western Himalaya treeline of the Juniperus polycarpos is not well defined because of the topographical barriers and variation in orography.

Disastrous bushfires during the last months of 2019 and January 2020 affected Australia, raising the question to what extent the risk of these fires was exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change.

Equilibrium climate sensitivity, the global surface temperature response to CO$_2$ doubling, has been persistently uncertain. Recent consensus places it likely within 1.5‐4.5K. Global climate models (GCMs), which attempt to represent all relevant physical processes, provide the most direct means of estimating climate sensitivity.

After more than 10,000 years of relative stability—the full span of human civilization—the Earth’s climate is changing. As average temperatures rise, climate science finds that acute hazards such as heat waves and floods grow in frequency and severity, and chronic hazards, such as drought and rising sea levels, intensify.

The United in Science Report has been created by the world’s leading climate science organizations who have joined forces to produce a unified assessment in preparation for the United Nations Climate Action Summit.

A new guide from Future Climate for Africa highlights two approaches researchers use to communicate climate projections, and the associated uncertainties, in west and southern African contexts.

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