While carbon dioxide emissions from energy use must be the primary target of climate change mitigation efforts, land use and land cover change (LULCC) also represent an important source of climate forcing.

We evaluate the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) with a higher-order turbulence closure scheme, named Cloud Layers Unified By Binomials (CLUBB), and a Multiscale Modeling Framework, referred as the “super-parameterization” (SP) with two different microphysics configurations to investigate their influences on rainfall simulations over Southern Amazonia. The two different microphysics configurations in SP are the one-moment cloud microphysics without aerosol treatment (SP1) and two-moment cloud microphysics coupled with aerosol treatment (SP2).

Black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols are important components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted urban environments. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to BC and OC concentrations is critical for developing and validating effective air quality control measures and climate change mitigation policy. We used radiocarbon (14C) to measure fossil and contemporary biomass contributions to BC and OC at three locations in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA during 2012-2014, including during winter inversion events.

The use of biomass for heat and power production is supported in many IEA countries since biomass as a renewable fuel can effectively substitute fossil fuels and consequently reduce fossil CO2. During biomass combustion, inhalable particulate matter smaller than 10 micrometres (PM10) can be generated which can cause adverse health impacts.

Emissions of aerosols and their precursors are declining due to policies enacted to protect human health, yet we currently lack a full understanding of the magnitude, spatiotemporal pattern, statistical significance, and physical mechanisms of precipitation responses to aerosol reductions. We quantify the global and regional precipitation responses to U.S. SO2 emission reductions using three fully coupled chemistry-climate models: Community Earth System Model version 1, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model 3, and Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE2.

The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) used to create “vaping” aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen) from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (GL), benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine.

Original Source

The objectives of the Winter Fog Experiment (WIFEX) over the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India are to develop better now-casting and forecasting of winter fog on various time- and spatial scales. Maximum fog occurrence over northwest India is about 48 days (visibility <1000 m) per year, and it occurs mostly during the December–February time-period. The physical and chemical characteristics of fog, meteorological factors responsible for its genesis, sustenance, intensity and dissipation are poorly understood.

Temporal variations in aerosol optical properties were investigated at a coastal station in Hong Kong based on the field observation from February 2012 to February 2015. At 550 nm, the average light-scattering (151 ± 100 Mm−1) and absorption coefficients (8.3 ± 6.1 Mm−1) were lower than most of other rural sites in eastern China, while the single-scattering albedo (SSA  =  0.93 ± 0.05) was relatively higher compared with other rural sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region.

This study provides evidence of substantial increases in atmospheric ammonia (NH3) concentrations (14 year) over several of the worlds major agricultural regions, using recently available retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite. The main sources of atmospheric NH3 are farming and animal husbandry involving reactive nitrogen ultimately derived from fertilizer use; rates of emission are also sensitive to climate change. Significant increasing trends are seen over the U.S. (2.61% yr

A simultaneous analysis of 13 years of remotely sensed data of land cover, fires, precipitation, and aerosols from the MODIS, TRMM, and MISR satellites and the AERONET network over Southeast Asia is performed, leading to a set of robust relationships between land-use change and fire being found on inter-annual and intra-annual scales over Southeast Asia, reflecting the heavy amounts of anthropogenic influence over land-use change and fires in this region of the world.

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