Since at least the 1980s, many farmers in northwest India have switched to mechanized combine harvesting to boost efficiency. This harvesting technique leaves abundant crop residue on the fields, which farmers typically burn to prepare their fields for subsequent planting. A key question is to what extent the large quantity of smoke emitted by these fires contributes to the already severe pollution in Delhi and across other parts of the heavily populated Indo-Gangetic Plain located downwind of the fires.

The population structure of the Phytophthora infestans populations that caused the recent 2013–14 late blight epidemic in eastern India (EI) and northeastern India (NEI) was examined. The data provide new baseline information for populations of P. infestans in India. A migrant European 13_A2 genotype was responsible for the 2013–14 epidemic, replacing the existing populations. Mutations have generated substantial sub-clonal variation with 24 multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) found, of which 19 were unique variants not yet reported elsewhere globally.

In middle Gangetic plain, high arsenic concentration is present in water, which causes a significant health risk. Total 48 morphologically distinct arsenite resistant bacteria were isolated from middle Gangetic plain. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of arsenite varied widely in the range 1–15 mM of the isolates. On the basis of their MIC, two isolates, AK1 (KY569423) and AK9 (KY569424) were selected.

Original Source

Changes in tropical wetland, ruminant or rice emissions are thought to have played a role in recent variations in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations. India has the world’s largest ruminant population and produces ~ 20% of the world’s rice. Therefore, changes in these sources could have significant implications for global warming. Here, we infer India’s CH4 emissions for the period 2010–2015 using a combination of satellite, surface and aircraft data.

Original Source

The objectives of the Winter Fog Experiment (WIFEX) over the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India are to develop better now-casting and forecasting of winter fog on various time- and spatial scales. Maximum fog occurrence over northwest India is about 48 days (visibility <1000 m) per year, and it occurs mostly during the December–February time-period. The physical and chemical characteristics of fog, meteorological factors responsible for its genesis, sustenance, intensity and dissipation are poorly understood.

Groundwater abstraction from the transboundary Indo-Gangetic Basin comprises 25% of global groundwater withdrawals, sustaining agricultural productivity in Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Recent interpretations of satellite gravity data indicate that current abstraction is unsustainable, yet these large-scale interpretations lack the spatio-temporal resolution required to govern groundwater effectively.

Soil series representing different physiographic units were studied to know the impact of temporal change in land use and cropping system on some soil properties in the northwestern parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The dynamics in land use and cropping system for the period 1983–84, 1996–97 and 2007–2008 and change in soil properties for the period 1983 and 2008 were studied. In Singhpur soil series developed on Shiwalik hills, the soil organic carbon (SOC) content decreased from 0.69% in 1983 to 0.40% in 2008 on account of increased deforestation and soil erosion.

In order to understand the regional climate implications of aerosols over Indo Gangetic Plains (IGP), a major Indo-US field experiment, Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) was conducted during 2011– 12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) mobile facility (AMF) was deployed at the northern Indo-Gangetic Plain over the high-altitude site, Manora Peak, Nainital (29°21′33.84″N, 79°27′29.27″E, 1980 m amsl) in Central Himalayas, for an year-round measurement of aerosols, clouds and other climate-relevant atmospheric parameters.

To reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from rice and wheat cultivation several mitigation options have been suggested. However, economic impact of these technologies has been poorly documented. In the present study economic analysis of some emerging GHG mitigation technologies for rice–wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic Plains has been carried out.

Original Source

Kandi block of Murshidabad district, West Bengal is situated in the Mayurakshi–Dwarka Plain. This is one of the maximum flood-affected blocks in Murshidabad. The average frequency of occurrence of floods in the last decade is 8. This study prepares a vulnerability map of Kandi block at village level combining physical, social and economic indicators of flood hazard. PCA analysis has been applied for computation of vulnerability indices. The results reveal that there is a difference in biophysical exposure and vulnerability index.

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