Significant salinity anomalies have been observed in the Arctic Ocean surface layer during the last decade. Our study is based on an extensive gridded dataset of winter salinity in the upper 50 m layer of the Arctic Ocean for the periods 1950–1993 and 2007–2012, obtained from ~20 000 profiles. We investigate the interannual variability of the salinity fields, identify predominant patterns of anomalous behavior and leading modes of variability, and develop a statistical model for the prediction of surface-layer salinity.

This report discusses in detail the occurrence of coastal land salinity, its impact on crop yield and environment, and various management techniques to mitigate the adverse impacts, including those of coastal flooding arising from storm surges and anticipated climate change.

The location and persistence of surface water (inland and coastal) is both affected by climate and human activity and affects climate, biological diversity and human wellbeing. Global data sets documenting surface water location and seasonality have been produced from inventories and national descriptions, statistical extrapolation of regional data and satellite imagery, but measuring long-term changes at high resolution remains a challenge. Here, using three million Landsat satellite images, we quantify changes in global surface water over the past 32 years at 30-metre resolution.

Recent salinity changes in the Southern Ocean are among the most prominent signals of climate change in the global ocean, yet their underlying causes have not been firmly established. Here we propose that trends in the northward transport of Antarctic sea ice are a major contributor to these changes. Using satellite observations supplemented by sea-ice reconstructions, we estimate that wind-driven northward freshwater transport by sea ice increased by 20 ± 10 per cent between 1982 and 2008.

Groundwater abstraction from the transboundary Indo-Gangetic Basin comprises 25% of global groundwater withdrawals, sustaining agricultural productivity in Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Recent interpretations of satellite gravity data indicate that current abstraction is unsustainable, yet these large-scale interpretations lack the spatio-temporal resolution required to govern groundwater effectively.

The province of Punjab is the main food basket of India. In recent years, many regions of Punjab are facing acute waterlogging problems and increased secondary salinity, which have negative impacts on food security of the nation. In particular, these problems are more pronounced in the Muktsar district of Punjab. The observed groundwater levels trend between 2005 and 2011 implies that groundwater levels are coming towards the land surface at the rate of 0.5 m/year in Lambi and Malout blocks.

The effects of global warming on water supply represent one of the greatest challenges for cities in the 21st century. City administrations are seeking ways to meet demand for water from growing populations while grappling with the issues presented by climate change - extreme rainfall and drought, rising sea levels and flooding.

After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, thirteen thousand hectares of farmlands were damaged by massive Tsunami near coastal sites in Miyagi, Japan. Some eighty percent of the damaged farmlands have been recovered in 2014, but subsidence and high salinity groundwater make it difficult to completely remove salinity from the soil.

Munrothuruthu (‘Munroe Island’) is a place renowned for continuous settlement, in the Kollam district of Kerala. The Indian Ocean earthquake and Tsunami of 2004 triggered this major problem. The island is located at confluence of the Ashtamudi Lake and the Kallada River. Low lying regions of the island are facing progressive settlement which has become pronounced since the occurrence of Tsunami. The area has been affected by upward seepage of saline water during High Tide events, denoting the axial lowering of land mass.

The prime objective of the guidelines for evaluation of proposals/requests for the withdrawal of ground water, is to focus on a specific part of ground water management viz.

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