The history of the Earth system is a story of change. Some changes are gradual and benign, but others, especially those associated with catastrophic mass extinction, are relatively abrupt and destructive. What sets one group apart from the other? Here, I hypothesize that perturbations of Earth’s carbon cycle lead to mass extinction if they exceed either a critical rate at long time scales or a critical size at short time scales. By analyzing 31 carbon isotopic events during the past 542 million years, I identify the critical rate with a limit imposed by mass conservation.

Something needs to be done to check it: expert

It is possible to trigger ocean oxygen depletion, choking the world’s seas.

This policy brief, prepared by SIWI and Alliance for Global Water Adaptation (AGWA), is a contribution to the discussions and activities at UNFCCC meetings in order to improve understanding and application of gender and water knowledge in the climate arena.

While global ocean health has remained relatively stable over the past five years, individual countries have seen changes, according to a study published July 5, 2017 in the open-access journal PLO

Growing international and national focus on quantitatively measuring and improving ocean health has increased the need for comprehensive, scientific, and repeated indicators to track progress towards achieving policy and societal goals. The Ocean Health Index (OHI) is one of the few indicators available for this purpose.

As humans put ever more heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere, the Earth heats up. These are the basics of global warming. But where does the heat go? How much extra heat is there?

Fears that progress towards some Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may undermine achievements in others are largely unfounded, a science-based analysis of their interactions has concluded.

The Ocean Atlas illustrates the important role played by the seas and the global maritime ecosystems – not just for people living on the coasts but for all of us. The Atlas provides up-to-date insights into the state of the seas that form a basis of human livelihood and into the factors threatening them.

As world leaders criticise the United States for pulling out of the Paris climate agreement, scientists are trying to work out exactly what a warmer world will mean.

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