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The tell-tale signs and impacts of climate change – such as sea level rise, ice loss and extreme weather – increased during 2015-2019, which is set to be the warmest five-year period on record, according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

For weather and climate information to be used at the grassroots level, it needs to be effectively interpreted and communicated so that it is both useful and usable to decision-makers, farmers and local-level planners. However, to date this information has not always met these requirements.

The gases heating the planet in 2018 were higher than humans have ever recorded, according to an authoritative new report from the American Meteorological Society and the US government. Greenhouse gas levels topped 60 years of modern measurements and 800,000 years of ice core data, the study found.

This report provides a summary of the UK weather and climate through the calendar year 2018, alongside the historical context for a number of essential climate variables. This is the fifth in a series of annual “State of the UK climate” publications and an update to the 2017 report.

Climate over India during 2018 was significantly warm in respect of temperature. The annual mean temperature for the country this year was +0.40°C above the 1981-2010 average, thus making the year 2018 as the sixth warmest year on records since the nation-wide records commenced in 1901.

2018 was one of the three warmest years on record for Europe. It began with a relatively cold period across most of the region.

This publication marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of the WMO Statement on the State of the Global Climate, which was first issued in 1994. The 2019 edition treating data for 2018 marks sustained international efforts dedicated to reporting on, analysing and understanding the year-to-year variations and long-term trends of a changing climate.

The year 2018 was the sixth warmest year on record in India since it commenced keeping nation-wide records of weather events in 1901, said India Meteorological Department (IMD)while noting that the country had lost over 1,400 lives in extreme weather events last year.

The report discusses the operational monitoring and forecasting aspects of the 2018 southwest monsoon. Various observed global and regional climate patterns associated with the 2018 monsoon have been highlighted.

The Sun’s activity cycle governs the radiation, particle and magnetic flux in the heliosphere creating hazardous space weather. Decadal-scale variations define space climate and force the Earth’s atmosphere. However, predicting the solar cycle is challenging.

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