Anthropogenic aerosols are a key factor governing Earth’s climate, and play a central role in human-caused climate change. However, because of aerosols’ complex physical, optical, and dynamical properties, aerosols are one of the most uncertain aspects of climate modeling. Fortunately, aerosol measurement networks over the past few decades have led to the establishment of long-term observations for numerous locations worldwide.

The 2015 annual review of disaster figures based on the EM-DAT database outlines information about the EM-DAT International Disaster Database, its definitions, criteria and content; asks: What did 2015 bring? How different was 2015?; and provides regional analysis on Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania.

This paper estimates the causal eff

June marks 14 consecutive months of record heat for the globe. Average sea surface temperature was also record high, Persistent heat on land and in the sea this June shattered records, yet again.

Humans affect fire regimes by providing ignition sources in some cases, suppressing wildfires in others, and altering natural vegetation in ways that may either promote or limit fire.

Tropopause temperatures (TPTs) control the amount of stratospheric water vapour, which influences chemistry, radiation and circulation in the stratosphere, and is also an important driver of surface climate. Decadal variability and long-term trends in tropical TPTs as well as stratospheric water vapour are largely unknown. Here, we present for the first time evidence, from reanalysis and state-of-the-art climate model simulations, of a link between decadal variability in tropical TPTs and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

High precipitation quantiles tend to rise with air temperature, following the so-called Clausius–Clapeyron scaling. This CC-scaling relation breaks down, or even reverts, for very high temperatures. In our study, we verify this reversal using a 60-year period of summer data in Germany. One of the suggested meteorological explanations is limited moisture supply, but our findings indicate that this behavior could also originate from simple undersampling.

Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere, and that ions have a relatively minor role. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded.

Despite documented intra-urban heterogeneity in the urban heat island (UHI) effect, little is known about spatial or temporal variability in plant response to the UHI. Using an automated temperature sensor network in conjunction with Landsat-derived remotely sensed estimates of start/end of the growing season, we investigate the impacts of the UHI on plant phenology in the city of Madison WI (USA)for the 2012–2014 growing seasons.

We have addressed the question of whether the massive deficit of 42% in rainfall over the Indian region in June 2014 can be attributed primarily to the El Niño. We have shown that the variation of convection over the Northern part of the Tropical West Pacific (NWTP: 120–150E, 20–30N) plays a major role in determining the all-India rainfall in June with deficit (excess) in rainfall associated with enhancement (suppression) of convection over NWTP.