To provide a picture of hydrological impact of climate change across different climatic zones in Europe, this study considers eight river basins: Tagus in Iberian Peninsula; Emån and Lule in Scandinavia; Rhine, Danube and Teteriv in Central and Eastern Europe; Tay on the island of Great Britain and Northern Dvina in North-Eastern Europe.
Under the European Union’s (EU) Air Quality Directive, Member States have to implement and report on the measures they put in place in areas where air quality limit and target values are exceeded. This briefing provides an overview of the different types of abatement measures reported.
Most national policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Europe target energy consumption and energy supply, while economic and regulatory instruments are the most common means of cutting emissions, according to a European Environment Agency (EEA) report.
The bottom-up traffic emission model EMISENS is used to calculate hourly black carbon (BC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission rates on an average workday in Maribor (Slovenia), using emission factors that were previously determined with the on-road chasing measurements in Slovenia. From modeled NOx emission rates and in-situ NOx measurements we empirically determined the hourly dispersion of traffic emissions and applied it to model BC concentrations using BC emission rates.