This report provides an overview of how all EU Member States and Türkiye are adapting to climate change and are reporting on their adaptation actions. The report summarises how these countries are progressing through the adaptation policy cycle.

This report explores the historical trends, most recent progress and projected future paths towards mitigating climate change through reduced greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy gains and improved energy efficiency. It builds on data reported by the 27 EU Member States (EU-27), Iceland and Norway.

This document is the annual EU emission inventory report under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Air Convention) (UNECE, 1979).

Most of Europe’s urban waste water treatment plants have focused on cleaning water and returning it to the environment in just a simple, linear approach.

Growing transport volumes have been driving Europe’s road transport emissions up in the past two decades. A European Environment Agency (EEA) analysis, shows how total greenhouse gas emissions from both passenger cars and heavy goods vehicles have increased in Europe, despite better engine efficiency and use of biofuels.

Collectively, the 2020 reduction was the largest in the EU since 1990 and total greenhouse gas emissions reached their lowest level since 1990, according to the official EU data which the EEA submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

The EU adaptation strategy aims to build resilience and ensure that Europe is well prepared to manage the risks from and adapt to the impacts of climate change, including limiting economic losses and other harm. All regions of Europe face economic losses and fatalities from weather and climate extremes every year.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on carbon emissions in Europe. In 2020, emissions from stationary installations covered by the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) declined by 11.4% (surpassing the 9% decrease seen in 2019). Aviation was even more acutely impacted.

Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases from large industrial sites in Europe cost society between €277 and €433 billion, in 2017, according to a European Environment Agency (EEA) analysis. About half of the annual cost is caused by just 211 facilities, around 2 % of the largest industrial sites in Europe.

Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases from large industrial sites in Europe cost society between €277 and €433 billion, in 2017, according to a European Environment Agency (EEA) analysis. About half of the annual cost is caused by just 211 facilities, around 2 % of the largest industrial sites in Europe.

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