Equilibrium climate sensitivity, the global surface temperature response to CO$_2$ doubling, has been persistently uncertain. Recent consensus places it likely within 1.5‐4.5K. Global climate models (GCMs), which attempt to represent all relevant physical processes, provide the most direct means of estimating climate sensitivity.

The world’s existing electricity systems were designed mainly for conventional, centralised power generation. Large plants have generated the bulk of electricity, frequently based on fossil fuels, and dispatched it to consumers based on relatively inflexible schedules.

ISFR 2019 presents the results of forest cover mapping with a refined methodology, though consistent with the past assessments. A manual for forest cover mapping has been prepared for the first time.

It is heartening to note that as per the ISFR, 2019, the forest and tree cover of the country continues to show a rising trend despite immense pressure on our forests.

Many energy consuming consumer durable goods, such as home appliances and vehicles, are subject to energy efficiency or greenhouse gas standards.

The buildings and construction sector accounted for 36% of final energy use and 39% of energy and process-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 2018, 11% of which resulted from manufacturing building materials and products such as steel, cement and glass.

Global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased at an annual rate of 1.5%, over the last decade, with only a slight slowdown from 2014 to 2016.

The WMO provisional statement on the State of the Global Climate, says that the global average temperature in 2019 (January to October) was about 1.1 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period. Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere hit a record level of 407.8 parts per million in 2018 and continued to rise in 2019.

The WMO provisional statement on the State of the Global Climate, says that the global average temperature in 2019 (January to October) was about 1.1 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period. Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere hit a record level of 407.8 parts per million in 2018 and continued to rise in 2019.

Transport-related emissions from tourism are expected to account for 5.3% of all anthropogenic emissions by 2030, up from 5% in 2016, according to a report published by the International Transport Forum (ITF) and the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).

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