Few studies exist that document how high-elevation Andean ecosystems recover naturally after the cessation of human activities and this can limit the implementation of cost-effective restoration actions. We assessed Andean forest (Polylepis stands) and páramo grassland recovery along an elevation gradient (3,600–4,350 m.a.s.l.) in the Yanacocha Reserve (Ecuador) where natural recovery has been allowed since 1995.

As the interest in using nature-based solutions to mitigate climate change grows, ‘blue carbon,’ which means carbon sequestered in coastal ecosystems, is also garnering attention.

Intact tropical forests, free from substantial anthropogenic influence, store and sequester large amounts of atmospheric carbon but are currently neglected in international climate policy.

Forest and land degradation undermines the foundation of human prosperity and well-being.

Current initiatives to store carbon in soils as a measure to mitigate climate change are gaining momentum. Agriculture plays an important role in soil carbon initiatives, as almost 40% of the world’s soils are currently used as cropland and grassland.

Protecting forests from degradation, deforestation and fragmentation, and tree-based landscape restoration are globally recognised as cost-effective solutions for combatting climate change.

Viet Nam is among the 196 Parties in the Paris Agreement that has committed to low-emission development pathways.

This paper uses a choice experiment conducted in Nepal during 2013 to estimate household-level willingness to participate in a village-level program under the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation initiative requiring reductions in fuelwood collection, as a function of the price paid per unit of avoided carbon dioxide emiss

Key messages Multi-lateral development banks (MDBs) have committed to financing climate change mitigation in agriculture and have adopted a harmonized methodology for attributing and reporting climate finance; however, design (including practice selection) and measurement of project impacts remains ad hoc.

The international community's ambition to fight against climate change comes at a cost: between US$50,000 billion and US$90,000 billion over the next 15 years according to the bottom-end estimates