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This report responds to heightened concerns over rising levels of farmer-herder conflict across a wide band of semi-arid Africa.

Two decades ago, legal provisions gave local institutions rights to manage natural resources in four dryland African countries: Mali, Niger, Sudan and Ethiopia. This report examines how resilient such decentralised institutions have been, under the rapidly changing circumstances of the past two decades, and notes common lessons learned.

Drylands cover 41% of Earth’s surface and are the largest source of interannual variability in the global carbon sink. Drylands are projected to experience accelerated expansion over the next century, but the implications of this expansion on variability in gross primary production (GPP) remain elusive.

About 80% of forests in Ethiopia are dry forest. For the last 20 years they have been subject to land use changes, and replaced by agricultural land and settlements.

Pastoral livestock production is crucial to the livelihoods and the economy of Africa’s drylands. It developed 7 000 years ago in response to long‑term climate change. It spread throughout Northern Africa as an adaptation to the rapidly changing and increasingly unpredictable arid climate.

Alongside the global temperature goals of limiting global average warming to well below 2°C, and to make concerted efforts to limit warming to below 1.5°C, the Paris Agreement aims to collectively enhance adaptation, build resilience to climate change, promote low carbon development and ensure that finance flows are provided to support these eff

This handbook provides practical guidance for planning and implementing community-led ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) in three vulnerable ecosystems: mountains, drylands and coastal areas. It is intended for project managers, practitioners and technical specialists.

‘Leave no one behind’ is a principle central to achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Soil biodiversity and soil organic carbon are vital to the way ecosystems function and they largely determine the role of land in producing food, storing water, and mitigating climate change. This report highlights how soil organic carbon and soil biodiversity provide the foundation for terrestrial ecosystem services.

Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services as part of an overall strategy to help people to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change and promote sustainable development.

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