In commercial agriculture, contracts coordinate production and trade, linking input suppliers to producers, all the way to end buyers. A better understanding of these chains of contracts can enable development practitioners and policymakers to increase scope for rural producer agency.

Social protection systems aim to eradicate poverty but often only reach a minority of the poorest households. Those eligible for social protection are often vulnerable to climate impacts that risk driving them further into poverty.

Social protection systems aim to eradicate poverty but often only reach a minority of the poorest households. Those eligible for social protection are often vulnerable to climate impacts that risk driving them further into poverty.

Access to reliable, affordable, sustainable and safe energy is recognised as an enabler of many development objectives. Yet energy infrastructure is often planned as standalone investment, from a purely economic and technological standpoint and in a top-down way that does not take into account the needs of end users.

Effective and progressive civil society movements are critical for tackling poverty and protecting the environment in low-income countries. Strengthening the capacity of citizens and advocacy organisations can therefore be a meaningful contribution to local, national and international efforts to shape development sector policy.

Producers trading in informal agricultural markets in low- and middle-income countries make daily choices concerning their livelihood and marketing strategies. Different contexts present varying degrees of market power and knowledge asymmetries across value chains and trading relations.

This report seeks to explore the current status of mainstreaming biodiversity into production sectors — in theory and in practice. It first explores a number of key concepts of biodiversity mainstreaming.

This climate resilience case study from Viet Nam is the ninth of ten case studies prepared by forest and farm producer organisations (FFPOs) for the Forest and Farm Facility (FFF). It describes the actions of the Viet Nam Cinnamon and Star Anise Cooperative to find nature based solutions (NbS) that give climate resilience.

Smallholder farmers in Ghana face a constant challenge: to choose between many, often competing, social, economic and environmental objectives while also meeting expectations to intensify their farming practices sustainably and produce ‘more with less’.

Access to affordable and reliable energy enables growth of local economies. And demand for energy ensures feasibility of business models for decentralised energy solutions such as mini-grids.

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