Microbial communities, associated with almost all metazoans, can be inherited from the environment. Although the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) gut microbiome is well documented, studies of the gut focus on just a small component of the bee microbiome. Other key areas such as the comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen (bee bread) are poorly understood. Furthermore, little is known about the relationship between the pollinator microbiome and its environment. Here we present a study of the bee bread microbiome and its relationship with land use.

A new assessment sets out the best-available evidence for policymakers to make better-informed decisions to combat land degradation, drawing on more than 3,000 scientific, government, indigenous and local knowledge sources.

Sustainability challenges for nature and people are complex and interconnected, such that effective solutions require approaches and a common theory of change that bridge disparate disciplines and sectors. Causal chains offer promising approaches to achieving an integrated understanding of how actions affect ecosystems, the goods and services they provide, and ultimately, human well-being.

The world’s largest works-based social protection scheme, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) has covered all of India since 2006 and aims at enhancing livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunte

Social conditional transfers (CTs) and payments for ecosystem services (PES) have the same starting point: the assumption that direct, conditional incentives are the most effective way to change behaviour. However, contextual disadvantages affect the capacity for the very poor to comply.

Wetlands cover 5–10% of the earth’s terrestrial surface. They are important ecosystems that supply goods and services for human wellbeing.

Over 80 modeling tools for mapping ecosystem services have been developed to help decision-makers better understand their local systems. These often consist of a set of models, each representing a particular ecosystem service.

This study investigated the dependence of three riparian communities on ecosystem services in northern Ghana. Participatory mapping and ranking exercises in gender-segregated groups were used to elicit information on the communities’ livelihoods.

Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have it rough in many ways. They are perhaps best known for their vulnerability to climate change, as a result of high poverty, rural populations, dependence on traditional agriculture, tourism-based economies and other factors.

Women play an increasingly greater role in agriculture. Ensuring that they have opportunities—equal to those of men—to participate in transforming agriculture is a prerequisite for sustainable intensification.