This case study looks at the approaches and innovations of private sector waste management companies, including in relation to their access to finance.

The current climate adaptation paradigm focuses overwhelmingly on states, neglecting conflict areas, which are among the worst impacted by climate change and the least prepared to adapt.

African cities and local governments are under increasing pressure to provide infrastructure and services to the growing population. Yet, most remain severely under-resourced, leaving them unable to make the necessary investments.

This is the first of two rapid assessment reports focusing on severely affected crisis contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. It provides a rapid assessment of crisis-affected populations in Somalia, South Sudan and Mali, to inform and bolster Action Against Hunger's humanitarian programming and interventions.

Climate change impacts and the effects of country responses spill across borders. These cross-border, transmitted effects are reshaping the global economy. Flows of natural resources and ecosystem services, traded goods and services, investment and ideas, as well as migration and travel, are shifting.

Nature-based solutions for green infrastructure – such as managing fresh water flows, improving agricultural productivity or planting native vegetation – provide multiple benefits to people, communities and their environment.

While the relative weight of climate change, conflict or displacement may vary, some combination of all three coexist in many, if not most, crises: Afghanistan, Colombia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Mozambique, Myanmar, Pakistan, the Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Syria, to mention just a few.

The African Union Commission has devised a continental plan to achieve the goals and targets of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. Yet progress has been variable and risk-creation – particularly in urban areas – continues to set many states and societies on pathways of increased disaster risk.

Decentralisation has been one of the most prominent public sector reforms endorsed by international institutions. It has been initiated in a large number of developing economies, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.

Access to effective waste management services is critical in any city. Where a city’s waste management is inadequate, it has drastic effects on the environment, public health and the quality of life of urban residents.