This brief explores two different types of carbon markets: baseline-and-credit mechanisms, which are primarily structured around offsetting and enable trade in certified emissions reductions between countries and companies (an example being the Clean Development Mechanism –CDM); and cap and trade schemes or emissions trading systems (ETS), which

Covid-19 immediately triggered food security concerns. Early in the pandemic, the World Food Programme estimated that Covid-19 will double the number of people facing food crises from 130 million to 265 million in 2020.

Without innovation, farmers would struggle to raise production and productivity. Innovation explains in part why more food per capita is produced in 2020 than in 1960, despite rapid population growth.

Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have long pursued unconventional economic development strategies, often with great success. Equally, because of their susceptibility to exogenous shocks, which can be disproportionately more destructive than in larger states, their progress remains fragile and can be set back suddenly and dramatically.

Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have long pursued unconventional economic development strategies, often with great success. Equally, because of their pronounced susceptibility to exogenous shocks, their progress remains fragile and can be set back suddenly and dramatically, as the Covid-19 crisis and secondary impacts have shown.

Without innovation, farmers would struggle to raise production and productivity. Innovation explains in part why more food per capita is produced in 2020 than in 1960, despite rapid population growth.

India is already feeling the impacts of climate change. Heatwaves are becoming more common and severe; heavy rain events have increased threefold since 1950; and rising sea levels are posing new risks as a third of India’s population live along the coast. Low-income and other marginalised groups are most vulnerable to these hazards.

In Copenhagen in 2009, developed countries committed to jointly mobilise $100 billion dollars a year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries. However, the climate accords rely on pledging and do not include any formulae for determining how responsibility for this target should be apportioned among developed countries.

This working paper examines the evidence relating to the relationship between finance and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. It reviews the financial landscape, progress and gaps in its development since 2000.

The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)’s focus on energy, transportation and other types of infrastructure has the potential to make an important contribution to filling the ‘infrastructure gap’ in BRI partner countries in the Global South.

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