Over the last decade, violent conflicts have surged by two-thirds and displacement is currently at a record high and length – around 71 million people have been forcibly displaced for as long as 20 years on average. In education, a different but equally serious crisis exists.

Notwithstanding the potential impacts of the pandemic on health and health systems in sub-Saharan Africa, at this stage of the crisis the indirect economic impacts are of more immediate concern.

As governments rush to respond to coronavirus, there is an urgent need to ensure that the measures they take are sensitive to the needs of their poorest and most vulnerable people. Analysis of past disease outbreaks such as SARS and Ebola suggests that income poverty is an important factor in disease transmission.

Global food demand is expected to increase by somewhere between 59% and 98% by 2050 as the world population reaches an estimated 9.7 billion. Food production is especially critical in Africa, where over 70% of the population rely on agriculture for their livelihoods.

The Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG7) mandate to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy services for all, means that even the poorest and most disadvantaged in society should have access to modern energy by 2030.

Development diplomacy refers to the repurposing of development assistance to service public diplomacy ambitions and aspirations, and simultaneously achieve development goals.

A range of regional bodies support national decision-making processes related to immunisation and public health policy.

A key challenge in the collective endeavour to combat the climate emergency is the shift of global investment and financing flows that underpin current and future growth to low-carbon, climate-resilient (LCCR) growth.