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This paper identifies and analyses a diverse sample of 52 intermediaries active in deploying one or more key functions across the investment value chain for 3 specific sub-sectors: utilities, small scale water and sanitation service providers and nature-based solutions.

In Asia, where rapid urbanization is occurring, inadequate water and sanitation services are a problem due to insufficient investment. Asia’s urbanization rate has risen from 32.8% in 1991 to 51.1% in 2020, and more than half of the world’s urban population already lives in Asia.

Water and sanitation are human rights, and countries have committed to a global goal of providing access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) to everyone, everywhere by 2030. This requires countries to invest in WASH to progressively realise those rights, for everyone equally.

Order of the National Green Tribunal in the matter of Tilak Raj & Others Vs Govt. of NCT of Delhi dated 27/08/2021.

Grievance in the application was against the unscientific dumping of sewage by tractors/vehicles of the septic tank cleaners at Sangam Vihar, Deoli, Delhi. According to the applicant, these activities are causing serious damage to the environment which remains unchecked by the regulatory authorities.

The world has made great strides in improving sanitation conditions in recent decades.

Growing socio-economic inequalities in India are disproportionately affecting health outcomes of marginalised groups due to the absence of Universal Health Coverage (UHC), reveals Oxfam India’s Inequality Report 2021: India’s Unequal Healthcare Story.

Order of the High Court of Orissa at Cuttack in the matter of In Re Death of Sanitation Workers Vs Chief Secretary & Others dated 06/07/2021.

Report filed by the Haryana State Pollution Control Board in compliance to the National Green Tribunal order, September 7, 2020 in the matter of O.A. No. 02/2020 on overflowing sewage on National Highway-19.

Bangladesh, India and Nepal have significantly improved basic sanitation services to people who do not have access. However, the safe management of toilet waste is still in its infancy. Delivering safe and inclusive sanitation services along the whole service chain requires considerable investment.

Analysis of sanitation, health, and education using country-level data suggests that sanitation improves child health, increases enrollment, and leads to higher girls’ participation in schools.

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