This paper develops a conceptual and generic framework design for the study of upstream-downstream linkages (UDL) in the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region. The framework application will to define changing upstreamdownstream linkages (UDL) and likely impacts on downstream regions.

The Lake Victoria Basin is internationally recognised for its high freshwater species diversity and endemism, which are of critical importance to local livelihoods and national economies within the basin.

This study includes a seasonal analysis of sediment contamination of the River Gandak by heavy metals. It passes through the many small, medium and big cities of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in Indian Territory. To explore the geochemical condition of the streambed sediment of the river, seven heavy metals, namely Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Zn and Pb were analyzed.

Original Source

The present study documents the wood-boring trace fossil Asthenopodichnium from the Palaeocene sediments of the Barmer Hill Formation (BHF) in the Barmer Basin, Western Rajasthan, India. The Asthenopodichnium trace fossils are loosely to tightly packed, pouch-like burrows or almond-shaped structures identified as Asthenopodichnium lignorum, whereas lozenge and J-shaped structures are designated as Asthenopodichnium lithuanicum.

Original Source

Nitrogen availability is a pivotal control on terrestrial carbon sequestration and global climate change. Historical and contemporary views assume that nitrogen enters Earth’s land-surface ecosystems from the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that bedrock is a nitrogen source that rivals atmospheric nitrogen inputs across major sectors of the global terrestrial environment.

Bed sediment samples were collected along the 9.5 km long inlet channel of Chilika lagoon, east coast of India during low freshwater discharge and low rainfall condition. Distributions of bed sediment along with its texture were studied in detail. Bivariate plots between mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis of sediments revealed definite grouping pattern. The study, through C-M plot, indicates that the prime factors for transportation of sediment within inlet channel of Chilika lagoon are rolling and bottom suspension during period of low discharge and low rainfall (November-June).

Soil erosion is integrally linked to land degradation. The excessive soil loss resulting from poor land management has serious implications for crop productivity and food security, which calls for sustainable use of our soil resource.

Increased energy demand has led to plans for building many new dams in the western Amazon, mostly in the Andean region. Historical data and mechanistic scenarios are used to examine potential impacts above and below six of the largest dams planned for the region, including reductions in downstream sediment and nutrient supplies, changes in downstream flood pulse, changes in upstream and downstream fish yields, reservoir siltation, greenhouse gas emissions and mercury contamination.

While keeping the rivers in pristine condition is the ultimate goal, development of civilization has always been on the banks of the rivers, to utilise the blessings of the rivers and their waters.

A likely consequence of global warming will be the redistribution of Earth’s rain belts, affecting water availability for many of Earth’s inhabitants. We consider three ways in which planetary warming might influence the global distribution of precipitation. The first possibility is that rainfall in the tropics will increase and that the subtropics and mid-latitudes will become more arid. A second possibility is that Earth’s thermal equator, around which the planet’s rain belts and dry zones are organized, will migrate northward.

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