Knowing the patterns of distribution of sediments in the global ocean is critical for understanding biogeochemical cycles and how deep-sea deposits respond to environmental change at the sea surface. We present the first digital map of seafloor lithologies based on descriptions of nearly 14,500 samples from original cruise reports, interpolated using a support vector machine algorithm. We show that sediment distribution is more complex, with significant deviations from earlier hand-drawn maps, and that major lithologies occur in drastically different proportions globally.

The Bengal Basin evolved as a rift-controlled extensional basin along the NNE–SSW trending Basin Margin Fault coevally with the 85 East Ridge in the Bay of Bengal during the short-lived hotspot activity south of Bhubaneswar. The basin opening post-dated the Kereguelen Plume magmatism (at ~116 Ma), but predated the phase of continental collision that triggered the rise of the Himalaya in the north. Supply of sediments in the initial stages of basin opening was from the west, mainly through the denudation and erosion of the uplifted Precambrian Shield.

An ecomorphodynamic model was developed to study how Avicennia marina mangroves influence channel network evolution in sandy tidal embayments. The model accounts for the effects of mangrove trees on tidal flow patterns and sediment dynamics. Mangrove growth is in turn controlled by hydrodynamic conditions. The presence of mangroves was found to enhance the initiation and branching of tidal channels, partly because the extra flow resistance in mangrove forests favours flow concentration, and thus sediment erosion in between vegetated areas.

On March 9th and 10th, 2015, an independent panel met for two days at Florida International University’s College of Law to discuss the likely environmental impacts associated with the proposed inter-oceanic canal through Nicaragua.

Movement of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries can have important effects on food webs and population dynamics. An example from the North Pacific Rim is the connection between productive marine ecosystems and freshwaters driven by annual spawning migrations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp).

Riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric carbon inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic carbon sets the magnitude of the atmospheric carbon and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between carbon reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

The northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, i.e. the Bay of Bengal (BoB) is located near some of the most complicated tectonic zones on the Earth. An earthquake of magnitude ~6.0 occurred on 21 May 2014 near the coast of Odisha. Occasional moderate to large earthquakes in BoB highlight the need to study precise hypocentre locations, and focal mechanisms to understand the cause of intraplate seismicity in BoB.

Original Source

Nowadays, aquatic organisms are used as bio-indicators to assess ecological water quality in western regions, but have hardly been used in an Iranian context. We, therefore, evaluated the suitability of several indices to assess the water quality for an Iranian case study.

Original Source

The Central Water Commission’s compendium on silting of reservoirs in India in 2015 had shown that Tungabhadra dam was the second most affected dam in the country after the massive Bhakra dam in Punjab.

Air temperatures in the tropical Andes have risen at an accelerated rate relative to the global average over recent decades. However, the effects of climate change on Andean lakes, which are vital to sustaining regional biodiversity and serve as an important water resource to local populations, remain largely unknown. Here, we show that recent climate changes have forced alpine lakes of the equatorial Andes towards new ecological and physical states, in close synchrony to the rapid shrinkage of glaciers regionally.