Metal contamination in river water is increasingly becoming common in India. Presence of metals in river water in excesses may cause a significant threat to human health and ecological systems. The present report attempts to provide the water quality scenario of Indian rivers in respect of trace and toxic metals.

Barely anywhere in the world does water have more value as an economic asset and for social development than in the Horn of Africa. According to most definitions, Somalia is classified as a water scarce country.

This third edition of report on "water quality hotspots in rivers of India” is based on the data of 10 nos. of water quality parameters observed during 2010-2020 at 588 water quality monitoring stations out of 764 stations of CWC.

The Ministry of Jal Shakti released the ‘Drinking water quality monitoring & surveillance framework’ for proper functioning of water quality testing laboratories, timely detection of any water quality contamination, redressal mechanism thus, ensuring quality of tap water and sources.

Target 6.6 is: “By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes.” Indicator 6.6.1 tracks changes over time in water-related ecosystems. Earth observations are used to determine changes to surface water bodies, such as lakes, large rivers, flooded wetlands and reservoirs.

Target 6.3 is: “By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally.” Indicator 6.3.2 monitors the proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water

Wastewater-fed aquaculture has a long history, especially in Asia. This report examines three empirical cases of integrated wastewater treatment and aquaculture production.

Use of coastal, estuarine and freshwater recreational environments has significant benefits for health and well-being, including rest, relaxation, exercise, cultural and religious practices, and aesthetic pleasure, while also providing substantial local, regional and national economic benefits.

Worldwide demand for freshwater resources is continuously increasing to satisfy the need for increasing population and growing economies. Further, both biophysical and social patterns and processes are interacting in ways that increase pressure on water and lead to water scarcity.

Approximately two-thirds of a billion rural people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, collect their domestic water from unprotected sources or from engineered but nonetheless distant water points.

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