Biological treatment, composting, in particular, is a relatively simple, durable and inexpensive alternative for stabilizing and reducing biodegradable waste. Co-composting of different waste sources allows to enhance the compost nutrient value.
An analysis of bacterial community structure and antibiotic resistance gene content of interconnected human faecal and environmental samples from two low-income communities in Latin America was carried out using a combination of functional metagenomics, 16S sequencing and shotgun sequencing; resistomes across habitats are generally structured along ecological gradients, but key resistance genes can cross these boundaries, and the authors assessed the usefulness of excreta management protocols in the prevention of resistance gene dissemination.
Open defecation is practised by over 600 million people in India and there is a strong political drive to eliminate this through the provision of on-site sanitation in rural areas. However, there are concerns that the subsequent leaching of excreta from subsurface storage could be adversely impacting underlying groundwater resources upon which rural populations are almost completely dependent for domestic water supply. We investigated this link in four villages undergoing sanitary interventions in Bihar State, India.
Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household.
The Union government has come out with fresh guidelines to determine quality of water in rivers and other water bodies. The notification, which was issued by the ministry of environment forests and climate change (MoEF), contains 14 points and states the desired levels in each parameter that will be used to determine quality.
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has issued a draft notification on the Standards for Sewage Treatment Plant for public comments. These standards will be applicable for discharge in water resources as well as for land disposal.
Directions issued under Section 5 of EPA Act, 1986 regarding Treatment and Utilization of Sewage for Restoration of Water Quality of River to Metropolitan Cities and States/UT Capitals by Central Pollution Control Board. Sewage is a mojor cause for poor water quality and adversely impacts human health and aquatic life.
Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a global model by Hofstra et al and zoom into Bangladesh and India as illustrative case studies.