According to Census 2011, Bihar reported 11.67 million urban population i.e. 11.25% of total population of state, dwelling in 199 urban centers (which accounts 3.14% of total urban population of country). The state has 143 statutory towns and 56 census towns.

Over half the world’s population now lives in urban areas and a large proportion of them lives without improved sanitation. Efforts to tackle open defecation in rural areas has been led by the Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) movement.

There is a high correlation between urbanisation and the emission of greenhouse gases. Landfills and sewers in cities generate 15% of methane emissions; this sector offers immense possibilities for the mitigation of methane emissions in Asian megacities. Capturing methane by efficiency improvements in the working of both sewage treatment plants and sanitary landfills has co-benefits in terms of both public health as well as mitigating climate change.

This paper analyses the effectiveness of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) by analyzing the financial and physical progress of the mission and the manner in which funds have been allocated and sanctioned to different activities in various states.

Order of the Delhi High Court in the matter of Gokulesh Prasad Vs State of NCT Delhi & Others dated 17/04/2018 regarding construction of public toilet completes in Delhi. Delhi High Court directs the municipal corporations to submit a status report regarding the decision taken with regard to the construction of the public toilets and also directed the municipal corporations to seek help if required from New Delhi Municipal Council in this matter.

In 2017, the World Water Council started a project that aims at identifying the most appropriate financial mechanisms that could better support the development of the sanitation sector throughout the world.

With a population of 16 million, Karachi is the largest megacity in Pakistan. Despite being a large city that is home to many, it has seen a substantial decline in quality of life and economic competitiveness in recent decades.

Order of the National Green Tribunal (Eastern Zone Bench, Kolkata) in the matter of Sajay Laloo Vs State of Meghalaya & Others dated 19/01/2018 regarding establishment of STPs in the town of Jowai, Meghalaya. The affidavit filed by the Chief Secretary, Govt. of Meghalaya states that Jowai Municipal Board has set up common ETPs and STPs and the letter calling for expression of interest has been floated for engagement of a suitable and qualified consultant for preparation of the DPR.

Although sanitation remains a focus in present government programmes and schemes (SBM and AMRUT), capacity building of ULBs and State Government on issues of sanitation has remained an area of neglect in most of the State and ULBs.

Order of the National Green Tribunal (Eastern Zone Bench, Kolkata) in the matter of Sajay Laloo Vs State of Meghalaya & Others dated 27/11/2017 regarding establishment of STPs in the town of Jowai, Meghalaya.

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