An energy system centred on renewable energy can help resolve many of Africa’s social, economic, health and environmental challenges. A profound energy transition is not only feasible, it is essential for a climate-safe future in which sustainable development prerogatives are met.

Under the Paris Agreement and COP26, countries enhanced their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and declared ambitious mitigation pledges such as net zero. Despite making a sizeable difference to greenhouse gas emissions and global temperature rise, we still need to set the world on a climate-safe pathway.

Decentralised renewable energy solutions linked to livelihoods is an important step in maximising the benefits of energy access for socio-economic development.

Hydropower is typically subject to strong seasonality’s, driven by rainfall patterns, snowmelt and other hydrological phenomena.

Off-grid electricity production from renewables, although largely unrecorded in most countries, is believed to be expanding rapidly.

Energy and agri-food systems are deeply connected. Agri-food systems consume about 30% of the world’s energy. While, energy is responsible for a third of agri-food systems’ emissions.

Urgent action is needed to accelerate the pace of the global energy transition and the decarbonisation of the global economy. International shipping is a key sector of the economy, as much as 90% of worldwide trade is transacted via ocean going vessels. The sector is also one of the most challenging to decarbonise.

To accommodate high shares of variable renewables in an effort to address global climate change, the future power system would require significant enhancement in grid flexibility.

This report examines Paraguay’s energy institutions and their governance, long-term energy planning practices, and the socio-economic benefits of promoting renewable and low-carbon technologies in the end-use sectors. The RRA process was conducted in synergy with the country’s revision of its National Determined Contribution (NDC).

Long-term energy scenarios have become an essential tool for policy makers to guide the clean energy transition. Energy scenarios produced are varied, leading to an abundance of insights and technology combinations.