NASA and NOAA announced today that 2016 was the hottest year on record globally - and the 3rd year in a row of record warming

Power stations, ships and air traffic are among the most potent greenhouse gas emitters and are primarily responsible for global warming. Iron salt aerosols (ISAs), composed partly of iron and chloride, exert a cooling effect on climate in several ways. This article aims firstly to examine all direct and indirect natural climate cooling mechanisms driven by ISA tropospheric aerosol particles, showing their cooperation and interaction within the different environmental compartments.

This report evaluates the impact of worldwide natural disaster events during the last 12 months to promote awareness and enhance resilience. The report reveals that there were 315 natural catastrophe events in 2016 that generated economic losses of USD210 billion.

Soil pH regulates the capacity of soils to store and supply nutrients, and thus contributes substantially to controlling productivity in terrestrial ecosystems . However, soil pH is not an independent regulator of soil fertility—rather, it is ultimately controlled by environmental forcing. In particular, small changes in water balance cause a steep transition from alkaline to acid soils across natural climate gradients.

The world is rapidly becoming urban with the global population living in cities projected to double by 2050. This increase in urbanization poses new challenges for the spread and control of communicable diseases such as malaria. In particular, urban environments create highly heterogeneous socio-economic and environmental conditions that can affect the transmission of vector-borne diseases dependent on human water storage and waste water management.

Reconstructions of the vegetation of Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are an enigma. Pollen-based analyses have suggested that Europe was largely covered by steppe and tundra, and forests persisted only in small refugia. Climate-vegetation model simulations on the other hand have consistently suggested that broad areas of Europe would have been suitable for forest, even in the depths of the last glaciation.

The Pacific Island Climate Outlook Forum (PICOF) has issued its Regional climate outlook and tropical cyclone outlook for 2016/2017. The forum, which took place on 17th and 18th of October in Nadi, Fiji, had a specific focus on the impacts of the 2015/16 El Niño.

Anthropogenic aerosols are a key factor governing Earth’s climate, and play a central role in human-caused climate change. However, because of aerosols’ complex physical, optical, and dynamical properties, aerosols are one of the most uncertain aspects of climate modeling. Fortunately, aerosol measurement networks over the past few decades have led to the establishment of long-term observations for numerous locations worldwide.

The 2015 annual review of disaster figures based on the EM-DAT database outlines information about the EM-DAT International Disaster Database, its definitions, criteria and content; asks: What did 2015 bring? How different was 2015?; and provides regional analysis on Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania.

This paper estimates the causal eff