Tropical cyclones and sea level rise cause major problems including beach erosion and damage to infrastructure in coastal areas. Inexpensive but effective plans for coastal protection will be needed by small island nations and developing countries. Natural breakwater formed by reefs is more cost-effective in coastal protection than the construction of artificial defenses. It provides a habitat for marine organisms and societal benefits including marine products, tourism, and education.
The Economics of Adaptation: Concepts, Methods and Examples is a guide for practitioners to assess economic benefits and costs of avoiding climate change damages through adaptation by developing these estimates using existing tools and data.
This report summarizes the economic and insured losses from the most relevant natural catastrophe events that occurred during 2016. The loss values presented include those reported by Willis Re, catastrophe model vendors, reinsurance companies and third party organizations.
This report evaluates the impact of worldwide natural disaster events during the last 12 months to promote awareness and enhance resilience. The report reveals that there were 315 natural catastrophe events in 2016 that generated economic losses of USD210 billion.