The COVID-19 pandemic has forever changed online shopping behaviours, according to a survey of about 3,700 consumers in nine emerging and developed economies.The survey, entitled “COVID-19 and E-commerce”, examined how the pandemic has changed the way consumers use e-commerce and digital solutions.

Massive declines in insect biodiversity and biomass are reported from many regions and habitats. In urban areas, creation of native wildflower meadows is one option to support insects and reduce maintenance costs of urban green spaces. However, benefits for insect conservation may depend on previous land use, and the size and location of new wildflower meadows.

The Renewable Energy Directive limits the share of unsustainable crop based biofuels and promotes certain types of biofuels produced from a list of materials defined in its Annex IX. This list is the basis for member states to define the different levels of support to different types of biofuels under their national framework.

The Covid-19 crisis has exposed the deep and systemic deficiencies of the global economic regulatory system and associated national vulnerabilities at a time of great distress.

The objective of this study is to provide a first assessment of the legal scope for EU or national measures to phase-out ICE vehicles and to identify issues where legal uncertainty remains and further investigation is needed.

As the renewable energy sector matures, policies must be adapted to reflect changing market conditions. With the increasing use of auctions, policymakers seek to procure renewables-based electricity at the lowest price and also fulfil socio-economic objectives.

A poll of 12,523 people carried out by YouGov1 in seven European countries reveals that the majority of people under 35 who use taxi services are willing to pay more for zero-emission Uber and taxi rides.

This working paper assesses the potential for Germany to meet the transport sector targets set by the European Union's recast Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) using advanced, non-food-based fuels.

In this population-based cohort study of 451 743 individuals from 10 countries in Europe, greater consumption of total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was positively associated with deaths from circulatory diseases, and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with deaths from digestive diseases.

This discussion paper focuses on how, while many countries have made commitments or plans to integrate adaptation into their social and economic plans and policies, an “action gap” exists. A change in commitments and plans has not yet led to a significant difference in the way development is practiced in response to climate change impacts.

Pages