Air pollution continues to be a major threat to public health. In 2017, 96% of the European Union’s urban population was exposed to ground ozone levels in excess of air quality guidelines (AQGs) from the World Health Organization (WHO). In the United States, the picture is similar. An estimated 93% of the U.S.

Regulators are working toward an India-specific version of the European Commission’s Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation Tool (VECTO), and its use in future fuel efficiency regulations would allow India to implement simulation-based standards that are more aligned with trends in other major vehicle markets.

This working paper examines the kinds of near-term incentives and supporting actions that are necessary to make battery electric vehicles (BEVs) a viable purchase option for drivers in Indian ride-hailing fleets.

This white paper quantifies the costs, benefits, and appropriate government funding associated with the transition to all passenger zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs). It assesses the key government support programs needed, for how long the need continues, and how public expenditures compare to societal benefits as the ZEV market develops.

To meet upcoming mandatory fleet-average reductions in CO2, heavy-duty vehicle manufacturers will have to introduce fuel-efficient technologies at a faster rate than they have done in past decades.

To address the danger that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from aircraft pose to public health and welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is set to propose an aircraft CO2 emissions standard.

State governments in India can play an important role in the transition to electric vehicles, and policymakers need innovative and dynamic support in creating and implementing electric vehicle policies that best fit the local context.

The report highlights the limitations of current emissions standards and provides detailed recommendations to overcome them. The recommendations cover several topics where the current light-duty vehicle emission standards should be strengthened.

In June 2019, Japan issued new fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles starting in model year 2030. The standards require an average fleet gasoline-equivalent fuel economy of 25.4 kilometers per liter by 2030, which is a 32.4% improvement over the fleet average for fiscal year 2016.

There is considerable interest in India in moving toward fuel-efficiency standards based on simulation modeling, and particularly in exploring the feasibility of using the Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation Tool (VECTO) developed by the European Commission.

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