For this paper, the CO2 emissions levels of two versions of the Volkswagen Golf, one diesel (Golf TDI) and one gasoline (Golf TSI), were compared both in laboratory tests and in on-road measurements under real-world driving conditions.

For this study, a C-segment passenger vehicle, equipped with a gasoline direct injection engine and compliant with the Euro 6c standard, was tested on the chassis dynamometer over the regulatory NEDC and WLTC cycles, and over two RDE-like cycles. The tests were performed at different ambient conditions and with both cold and warm engines.

On February 19, 2019, representatives of the European Commission, the European Parliament, and the European Council agreed on a compromise for setting carbon dioxide (CO2) emission standards for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) for the first time in the European Union.

Most developing and transition countries do not have vehicle manufacturing capabilities hence rely on import of their entire vehicle fleet. A large percentage of these vehicles are imported as used or second-hand.

Brazil’s new PROCONVE P-8 standards will apply to all new on-road passenger and freight vehicles equipped with compression-ignition or spark-ignition engines and weighing at least 3,856 kg. These vehicle categories currently account for an outsized contribution to on-road vehicle emissions in Brazil.

Order of the Supreme Court of India in the matter of Volkswagen India Pvt. Ltd. & Other Vs Satvinderjeet Singh Sodhi & Others dated 21/01/2019 regarding violation of environmental norms by Volkswagen. An order passed by NGT dated 16 November 2018 had ordered the automaker to deposit an amount of Rs. 100 crores with the CPCB within a month. On 17 January 2019, the Tribunal passed an order noting that the deposit in terms of its order dated 16 November 2018 has not been made. Volkswagen furnished an undertaking that a deposit would be made by next day which was done accordingly.

Order of the National Green Tribunal in the matter of Subhas Datta Vs State of West Bengal & Others dated 27/11/2018 regarding the alarming adverse air quality of Kolkata City which was stated to be highly polluted during the period commencing from mid-October to February end. The principal reason for the bad ambient air quality in the city of Kolkata and Howrah was identified to be auto emission apart from road dust, construction activities, burning of municipal waste and industrial wastes including plastics, population of DG sets and industrial emissions.

Motorcycles are a dominant form of transport in many cities, especially throughout Asia. This Sourcebook describes the challenges of this trend and provides an overview on measures to counter the rising emissions from two-stroke two-and three-wheelers in developing cities.

Order of the National Green Tribunal in the matter of Saloni Ailawadi Vs Union of India & Others dated 16/11/2018 regarding pollution caused by Volkswagen India Pvt. Ltd. and Skoda Auto India Private Limited.

Judgement of the Supreme Court in the matter of M. C. Mehta Vs Union of India & Others dated 24/10/2018 on whether Bharat Stage IV compliant vehicles should be permitted to be sold in India after 31.03.2020.

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